Dr. Einar C. Erickson
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The soul becomes imbedded knowledge in the sense to heaven and gives a defense before each power and thus mounts beyond them to the upper Mother and Father of the all from whence the soul came down to this world. Stripped of the garment of the flesh, clothed upon with incorruptibility.

 

INTRODUCTION          

From the results of the research on the Urim and Thummim, it seems I ought to do some on the seer stones. There are many areas of uncertainty and the absence of official documentation. I will be returning to the rest of the names under Z in the glossary, then have plans for other research. I have spent twelve years on the names, it has been really rewarding.

The names are definitive proof of the authenticity of the Book of Mormon and Joseph Smith as a prophet.  Anyone who neglects the names does so at his own peril.  Some one  will someday come along and refine the work I have done with more skills than I have.  The abbreviation HC reefers to the HISTORY OF THE CHURCH, compiled by B.H. Roberts. 

JOSEPH SEES URIM AND THUMMIM FOR FIRST TIME

In the fourth vison of Moroni, which occurred when going home because he was too tired  to work in the field, Moroni appeared to  Joseph and  told him to go tell his father and rehearse the “whole matter to him.” Joseph did, and his father told him it was of  God,“ go and do as commanded  by the messenger what the angel had told him to do.”  Moroni gave Joseph a vison of where the plates were deposited “and owing to the distinctness of the vision which I had had concerning it, I knew the place the instant that I arrived there.” (HC-p. 15) There under a stone of considerable size lay the plates in a stone box, the stone was thick and rounded in the middle thinning to the edges,  visible above ground but the edges were covered all around by earth. He removed the earth, obtained a lever and raised the stone cover “I looked in, and there indeed did I behold the plates, the Urim and Thimmim, and the breastplate, as stated by the messenger.”  He was forbidden from taking the objects out of the box, but was to return the same time and place the next year and meet with the messenger, (HC-pp 16-17, JSH-1-59) for further instruction. (Peterson  Chapter 5) It  had been about 1400 years since the objects in the box had seen the light of day, and it would be four more years of meetings and instruction and learning in what manner the Lord’s kingdom was to be conducted, in the last days.

JOSEPH GETS SOME THE CONTENTS OF THE STONE BOX.

At length the time arrived for obtaining the plates, the Urim and Thummim, and the Breastplate. On the twenty-second day of  September, one thousand and eight hundred and twenty-seven years, having gone as usual at the end of another years to the place where they were deposited, the same heavenly messenger delivered them up to me with the charge ”not to neglect the care of them or I should be cut off.” If he used all his endeavors they should be protected. (HC-pp. 16-17

Jesse Knight was at the home of the Smith’s when Joseph returned with some of the contents of the stone Box. “He seemed to think more of the glasses of the Urim and Thummim than he did of the Plates. He said “I can see anything, they’re marvelous.” (Jesse, “Joseph, Knight’s Recollection of Early Mormon History, “Brigham Young University Studies, vol. 17. Autumn 1976, no, 1, 3 , Kelly p. 28)  

After receiving fifty dollars from Martin Harris, and with the help of Emma’s brother, Alba, they   moved to the old house in Harmony. “Immediately after my arrival there I commenced copying the characters off the plates. I copied a considerable number of them, by  means of the of the Urim and Thummim I  translated some of them.     (Kelly p.29) “Which I did between the time I arrived at the  house of my wife’ father in the month of December,  and the February following.” (HC-p.19) This early product of Joseph Smith’s translating was given to  Martin Harris to take to New York.  Page 20 of the Church History  gives the account of Harris visiting Charles Anthon and it’s results..

EMMA AND RUEBEN HALE AS SCRIBES.

Upon his return from New York, Martin went to Joseph’s home where, on 12 of April 1828, he commenced writing for Joseph “ … while [he]  translated from the Plates,“ (HC-p. 20) In the early days of translation Emma and her brother Rueben Hale were scribes. (Kelly p. 33) Then with Martin they continued the work until June 14th when the Book of Lehi, the 116 pages were finished. The Book of Lehi, of 116 pages, took nearly 60 days. With Oliver as scribe they did nearly 600  pages in less than 90 days.

Martin then pestered Joseph to get the Lord’s permission to take the translation home and show them to his wife “through the Urim and Thummim , if he might not do so.”  The Lord said “No.” After three inquiries and “much solicitation…permission was granted …on certain conditions…show them only to his brother….his own wife, his father, his mother, and to a …Mrs. Cobb, his wife’s sister…and bind himself in a most solemn manner.  Notwithstanding …the solemnity of the covenant…he did show them to others, and by stratagem they got them away from him and they never have been recovered.” (HC-p.21)   

After the loss of the 116 pages, Joseph went to visit his father’s family in Manchester for short time then returned to his home in Harmony.  “I was walking out a little distance, when, behold the former heavenly messenger appeared and handed to me the Urim and Thummim again—for it had been taken from me [along with the plates] in consequence  of my having wearied the Lord in asking for the privilege of letting Martin Harris take the writings which he lost … I inquired through it and obtained” D&C Section3. After I had obtained …the revelation, both the plates and the Urim and Thummim were taken from me again; but in a few days they were returned to me, when I inquired of the Lord and the Lord said thus unto me: D&C Section 10.” (HC- pp. 21-23)

THE GIFT TO TRANSLATE

During February and March he had revelations through the Urim and Thummim, Sections  4 and 5, 1829 ; (HC-pp.  23-31) A verse in Section 5 is of interest as it alludes to the Urim and Thummim; 4. “And you have a gift to translate the plates, and this is the first gift that I bestowed  upon  you; and I have commanded that  you should pretend to no other gift until my purpose is fulfilled in this: for I will grant you no other gift until it is finished.” In April as Joseph was preparing for the organization of the church and receiving a complex series of revelations compiled into D&C Section 20, including more information on Martin Harris, the lord reviewed aspects of the giving of the gift of translation to Joseph: “6. After repenting and humbling himself sincerely, through faith, God ministered unto him by an holy angel, whose countenance was as lightening, and whose garments were pure and white above all other whiteness 7.  And gave unto him commandments which inspired him. 8. And gave him power from on high, by the means which were before prepared, to translate the Book of Mormon, the Urim and Thummim.” (Smith RE, pp. 99-100)

OLIVER COWDERY JOINS JOSEPH

The story of Oliver Cowdery is  summarized in Chapter IV of the HC-p.32. A friend of David Whitmer, he was traveling to visit Joseph and was to report back to David  “his impressions as to the truth or untruth of Joseph Smith’s having an ancient record.” (HC-p. 32) He arrived at Joseph’s home on the fifth day of April, 1829. He had come to make inquiries of Joseph. “To his surprise, Joseph was expecting him when he arrived.” (Kelly p. 33)

 “two days after the arrival of Mr. Cowdery (being the 7th of April) I commenced to translate the book of Mormon and he began to write for me.” (HC-pp-32-33) What happened those two days? Not only did Oliver become convinced Joseph  had a  record but Oliver  subscribed to  write for joseph as Joseph dictated to him for as long as it would take, neither one of them could have known how long that would be;  it would take almost eighty five day’s of tedious writing. At times there was real weariness.  Oliver knew he could not look upon the plates, but then he did have his own witness of them. His own secret.  (HC-p.35)  After some time Joseph  obtained a revelation  through the Urim and Thummim, D&C Section 6. (HC-pp 35-36) The revelation verified  Oliver’s previous experience. (HC-p. 35) Now he knew  the work was true!

Joseph and Oliver used the Urim and Thummim to inquire of the lord on a variety of subjects during April 1829, including whether or not John the beloved had been translated or had died, D&C Section 7. (Smith p. 39) But as time went on less and less use of the Urim and Thummim was made. Often when major issues were involved, such as the Keys of the priesthood, there were direct appearances and visitations and physical contact with resurrected beings, such as the laying on-of-hands to give keys to Oliver and Joseph. During the months of May and June, 1829,  many revelations were obtained for individuals and the keys of  both priesthoods were given.  Many of these were obtained as they were desired, or Joseph received them through the means of the Urim and Thummim. (HC- p. 49) For both Joseph and Oliver receiving the baptism keys provided a very high spiritual experience, a personal encounter with a resurrected being passing on keys and authority. (Chapter V, HC-39) Then  Joseph used the Urim and Thummim to obtain instructions about who and when the three witnesses would have their experience in June 1829. (D&C Section 17; CH-Chapter 6, p. 52)

The revelations of D&C Sections 8 and 9 in April 1829,  were through the Urim and Thummim in regard to Oliver being permitted to translate (HC-p. 36-37) and in particular the instructions how to get and verify wisdom and truth. (D&C Section 8:8-9;HC-p. 36-38). Additional revelations were given but how? Is was not stated. The Urim and Thummim may or may not have been used. D&C Section 10 is such a revelation dealing with the 116 pages and the deceit that was planned, and the early knowledge that Mormon had to prepare for their loss. (Mormon 1:3-7) Divine omniscience is clearly illustrated in this instance. God knows everything; even the end from the beginning, and has made all preparations necessary.

Later in May, Joseph through the Urim and Thummim received a revelation, Section D&C 11 for his brother Hyrum. His brother Samuel was not easily persuaded, but he obtained his own revelation to convince him. In June, David, John and Peter Whitmore, now zealous friends and assistants desired he inquire of the Lord concerning them. Joseph did so through the Urim and Thummim obtained D&C Sections 14, 15, and 16 (HC-pp. 48-51) with instructions for each of them.

THE THREE WITNESSES

D&C Section 13, was another encounter of the first kind, the appearance and administration ordinations by John the Baptist and physical contact with a resurrected being, lead to the restoration of the  Aaronic priesthood on May 15, 1829. The restoration was now starting to get its authority. A short time later they were to have the Melchizedek Priesthood conferred upon them; another physical contact with resurrected beings. Note that they were told they would see the Plates and the Breastplate.  These were and are sacred plates “having a divine relationship to the Urim and Thummim.” (Woodford p. 260) Not enough attention has not been given to the actual physical contact- mortal beings feeling the hands of resurrected beings on their bodies to get keys and have ordinances performed and transferred from the celestial sphere to the mortal sphere.  What do you feel when a resurrected being lays  his hands on you?

D&C Section 17:  having  learned while translating the Jaredite record that three witnesses would  be designated (Ether, 5:2-4; 2 Nephi 11:3, 27:12) Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, and Martin Harris  had an inspired desire to be those witnesses and were so chosen through the    Urim and Thummim. By faith the Three Witnesses shall SEE the plates and other sacred items. “2. …it is by  your faith that you shall obtain a view of them, even by that faith which was had by the prophets of old. 3. And after that you have obtained faith and have SEEN them with  your eyes you shall TESTIFY  of them by the POWER OF GOD.

WHAT WERE THEY TO SEE?

“Behold , I say unto  you, That you must rely  upon my word, which if you do  with full purpose of heart, you shall have a view of the PLATES, and also of the Breastplate, the sword of Laban, the Urim and Thummim which was given to the brother of Jared upon the  mount, when he talked with the Lord face to face, and the  miraculous  directors which were given to Lehi while in the wilderness on the borders of the Red Sea.” (D&C Sect. 17:1)

WHAT DID THEY ACTUALLY SEE AND HEAR?

They SAW: the  ENGRAVED PLATES, the BREASTPLATE, the SWORD OF LABAN, the URIM and THUMMIM, and the MIRACULOUS DIRECTORS. [the LIAHONA].  In addition to seeing the plates they were permitted to SEE AND HEAR  other items, They saw  a bright light out of which came the   voice of the Lord,  which they heard; and they saw and heard  the angel who showed them the engraved plates. A detailed account of all of this, one with Oliver, David and Joseph, the other with Martin and Joseph, is provided in Church History Vol. 1, Chapter VI. They testified to other things as well in their signed statement. Of interest is the 1878 interview of the aged David, when asked by Elders Orson Pratt and Joseph F. Smith if he and the other witnesses did or did not sign the testimonies themselves? “Whitmer  replied that each signed his own name.” (HC-p. 56)

But why see the Sword of Laban and the Liahona?  Recall that the lost 116 pages was the Book of Lehi with the account of the slaying of Laban and Nephi taking his the sword, and the account and use of the Liahona was referred to throughout that book. For the 116 pages, it seems  Emma, Rueben Hale,  Joseph and  Martin  Harris were involved.  Seeing these objects confirms for them the reality of the Sword, the  episode of the death of Laban, the wilderness compass the  Liahona shouting out loud and clear:  there really was 116 pages that were lost; They were The Book of Lehi. This revelation also confirms the origin of at least one URIM and  THUMMIM,  the one given to the brother of Jared, (D&C Sec. 17:1), the Jaredite URIM AND THUMMIM, hidden up with his records by Ether who wanted his records on, stone,  (OMNI 1:20-21)and gold, (Mosiah 8:8-10) and the Urim and Thummim (Mosiah 8:10), to be found. “and he hid them in a manner that the people of Limhi would find them.” (Ether 15:33)  The Lord said to the brother of Jared: “Write these things [the visions of the brother of Jared] and seal them up, and I will show them in mine own due time unto the children of men. (Ether 3:27…The Lord also commanded the brother of Jared to seal up the Urim and Thumimim which the Lord  had given him and told  him not to show them to others.” This is a story all by itself. Much of the sealed part of the Plates were the visions and experiences of the brother of Jared. We will get these in due time. We only have the summaries provided by Mormon in Omni and Mosiah and Ether. The translated 24 plates were those prepared by Moroni, our present Book of Ether.  

“and it came to pass in the days of Mosiah, there was a large stone brought unto him with engravings on it ;and he did interpret the engravings by the gift and power of God. 21. And they gave an account of Coriantumr, and the slain of his people. The wounded Coriantmur was discovered by the people of Zarahemla; and he dwelt with them for the space of nine moons, never recovering from his wounds.  (Omni 1:20-21) Mosiah may have come into the possession of the Urim and Thummim at this time so he would have them when the 24 plates were brought to him. Ammon and Limhi would take to Mosiah the 24 plates that were also recovered, for translation, which we now have as the Book of Ether, by Moroni.

King Limhi had sent out searchers to find the land of Zarahemla, they had discovered  ”a land covered with bones of men and beasts and covered with ruins.” of the Jaredites. They had returned with gold plates. King Limhi told Ammon about them and Ammon told him about Mosiah  who had “a gift from God” the interpreters,  whereby he could interpret such engravings, they were the Urim and Thummim, making him a seer,“ then Ammon gave a discourse on what a Seer is: “…a seer is  greater than a prophet.” (Mosiah 8:12-19) Ammon suggested to King Limhi they take the plates to Mosiah. The king rejoiced saying: “Doubtless a great mystery is contained within these plates and these interpreters were doubtless preserved for the purpose of unfolding all such mysteries to the children of men.” (Mosiah 8:19) Mosiah translated the records making the record and the Jaredite names accessible to the Nephites as we have found in this series of studies. One of the last things Moroni did was to translate these plates for the benefit of us moderns. (Ether 1:1-2)   

Elder Orson Pratt reported that Joseph Smith told him that the Lord gave him the Urim and Thummim when he was inexperienced as a translator but that he later progressed to the point that he no longer needed the instrument. “Joseph used these and other seer stones that he found…referred to by the biblical terms Urim and Thummim for several purposes, translating the Book of Mormon and receiving revelations.” (Ludlow p. 1293; “The two Days’ meeting at Brigham City,” Millennial Star 36 [1874]:490-99) This is one of the rare instances when reference is made to seer stones, otherwise the official records and histories do not mention the seer stone. “When the prophet Joseph Smith was young, he found a seer stone which was later possessed by Brigham Young.” (Bigelow p. 308) That is what the church has displayed In the Joseph Smith Papers vol. 3.

ABRAHAM AND KOLOB

Abraham wrote: “I saw the stars, that they were very great….one of them was nearest unto the Throne of God; and there were many great ones near it…these are the governing ones And the name of the great one is  Kolob. …(Wilcox –Abraham, Chapter 3)  I have set this one to govern all those which belong to the same order as that upon which thou standest …by the Urim and Thummim …one  revolution was a day  unto the Lord…it being one thousand years…This was the reckoning of the Lord’s time… according to the reckoning of Kolob…the greatest of all the Stars seen by the patriarch…Kae-e-vanrash is the grand key, or governing power …Hah-ko-kau-beam  receive their light from …Kolob.” (Reynolds p.265) “God has set the bounds of light lest it pass over and consume the planets. (Smith,  EG,  p. 25) “Kolob …signifies the first great grand governing fixed star ever has been discovered by the fathers which was discovered  by Methusela and also Abraham.” (Smith, EG, p. 34) For those two ancients the Urim and Thummum were telescopes. Both had to have been great astronomers. Their curiosity reached into the immensity of the Universe and the God’s, the Father and the Son’s creational activities. (Moses 1:31-36:39; 7:30-31) Methuselah lived to be 969 years. He knew and could have taught all of those things he learned with the Urim  and Thummim to the ancients from Adam to the sons of Noah, because he personally knew all of them. But was a couple  hundred years short of knowing Abraham. (Shulman pp. 15-19)

It seems  that the Urim and Thummim possessed by Methusela was the same given to Abraham along with the records of the ancients  which Abraham says “I have kept even unto this day” and then he added some of his  own knowledge to  the record. (Abraham 1:2;1:31; 3:1; Chapters 3 and 4)

Abraham gives us three ways by which he received knowledge of astronomy: (1st) Through the records handed down to him from antediluvian patriarchs. (2nd) By the use of the Urim and Thummim, which he received from the Lord in Ur of Chaldea. (3rd)  By direct communication with the Almighty, Who face to face. and by his own  voice, explained the laws that govern His countless Creations. (Reynolds p. 264) Asatronomy “revealed by God tp Abraham is so fast, so grand, so comprehensive, that no uninspired man ever searched out its depth or ascended its heights.” (Reynolds pp. 264-265) See studies on astronomy in this web site.

TESTIMONY OF THE LORD: IT IS TRUE!

“And he (Joseph Smith) has translated the Book even that part which I have commanded him, and as your Lord and your God Iiveth it is true.”      The ChURCH was not organized until after The  Book of Mormon  was published. (D&C Sect. 17:6; 6:17; 18:2) The Book of Mormon was and is foundational and fundamental. (Largey p. 116) During a conference in Ohio in 1831, he said that “it was not intended to tell the world all the particulars of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon and also said that it was not expedient for him to relate these things.” (Largey p. 158)

SOME SCRIBES                                                                                     

Emma, the wife of Joseph the prophet,  may have been one of the first to act as a scribe the winter of  1827-1828. Martin served as a scribe for two months; April-June. The winter of 1828-1829 Emma, Ruben Hale, and Samuel H. Smith served as scribes. Members of the Whitmer family might also have assisted          Joseph in preparing the Manuscript of the Book of Mormon in June 1829. Pages from the original manuscript contain the handwriting of individuals who have not been identified. (Largey p. 158) In June 1829 John Whitmer served as scribe temporarily. (Largey p. 159) But substantial work did not begin until Oliver arrived 5th of April 1829. (Largey p. 158) The order in which the Book of Mormon was translated is discussed by Largey. (Largey pp. 159-160) There are various accounts of Joseph Smith returning the plates and Items that he had. These are discussed in the book MORONI  by H, Donl Peterson, pp. 135-137. There were multiple returns, each somewhat different.

THE FUTURE AND THE URIM AND THUMMIM

 D&C 130:6 states that the angels do not reside on a planet like this earth. Verse 7. But they (Matt. 18:10;25:312; 2Thes. 1:7; D&C 76:21; 136:37) reside in the (1 Tim. 6:16; D&C 76:62, 94; 119;  88:19) presence of God, on a globe (Ezek. 1:4 (14,26-28; Hel. 5:23; D&C 133:41; 137:2) like a sea of glass (Rev, 3;6; 15:2, (1-4) and fire, were all things for their glory are manifest, past, present and future, and are continually before the Lord. 8. The place where God resides is a great Urim and Thummim 9. This earth in its sanctified (D&C 77:1) and immortal state, will be made like unto crystal and will be a Urim and Thummim to the inhabitants “fit dwelling place for celestial beings.” (Smith RE, p. 815) who dwell thereon, whereby all things pertaining to an inferior kingdom or all kingdoms of a lower order, will be manifest to those who dwell on it and this earth will be Christ’s (Isa. 33:14). 10. The white stone mentioned in Revelation 2:17, “Each inhabitant on the glorified earth will be given a “white Stone,” (Smith p. 815) ”it will become a Urim and Thummim  to each individual who receives one, whereby things pertaining to a higher  (Abr. 3:3 93-17) order of kingdoms will be made known. 11. And a white stone is given to each of those who come into the celestial kingdom, whereon is a new name (Isa. 62:2; 65:15; Mos. 5:12 (9-14 ) written, which no man knoweth save he that receiveth it. The new name is the key word. Without the key word you do not get a stone, you do not get knowledge of higher kingdoms. (Clark pp. 32-34)

THE SECRET OF THE WAY

This was all familiar to the ancients who called it the “The secret of the Way.” (Jonas p. 272)  It includes “the sacraments [ordinances] to be performed now…the ‘names’ to be employed later when the ascending spirit meets the powers after leaving the body at death, and whatever …preparation may assure this future passage…befitting a doctrine of salvation.” (Jonas p. 272) “The Journey of the soul…requires guarantees …which accompany the soul…like baptism, the sign, the name, and  good works.” (Foerster  p. 133) The Temple going Mormon will know what most of this is all about.

A discussion of the Urim and Thummim is provided by  Sydney D, Sperry in his  Book of Mormon Compendium, pp. 25-29, 276, 298, 450,  587,  Book Craft, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1968, and the shining  stones from ancient literature discussed by archaeologists and ancient historians in Nibley’s book “Lehi in the Desert. The World of the Jaredites and There Were Jaredites”  FARMS, BYU, Deseret Book Store, Salt Lake City, Utah 1988, pp.374-379.

UNCERTAIN THAT SEER STONE WAS USED IN TRANSLSATION OF THE BOOK OF MORMON

“ We have been taught since the days of the Prophet that the Urim and Thummim were returned with the plates to the angel. We have no record of the Prophet having the URIM and Thummium after the organization of the Church. Statements of translations by the UrIm and Thummim after that date are evidently errors. The statement has been made that the Urim and  Thummim was on the altar in the Manti Temple when that building was dedicated. The Urim and Thummim so spoken of, however was the seer stone which was in the possession of the Prophet Joseph Smith in early days. The seer stone is now in possession of the church. While the statement has been made by some writers that the Prophet Joseph Smith used a seer stone part of the time in his translating of the record, and information points to the fact that he did have in his possession such a stone, yet there is no authentic statement in the history of the Church which state that the use of such stone was made in that translation. The information is all hearsay, and personally, I do not believe that this stone was used for this purpose.” (Smith J.F.DS, pp. 225-226; Ether 3:22-24; In the spring of 1974 the contents of a safe were willed to the First Presidency, it contained the seer stone. For additional. Information go to Lds.org, and especially the new published Joseph Smith Papers vol. 3, and additional references added to this Part 2, of the study on the Urim and Thummim.

ELDER JOHN A. WIDTSOE

Elder John A. Widtsoe said: “Clearly the Urim and Thummim  were used in official communications with the Lord,  beyond that little was known of  them….The prophet was required to place himself in the right proper spirit and mental attitude before he could use the Urim and Thummim successfully….God’s will was revealed to him without the intervention of external aids.” ( Brewster pp. 614-615) A seer is one who sees , who walks in the Lord’s light with open eyes. (Brewster p. 508) There are fifteen men, sometimes more, so designated, in the Church today..

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIGELOW, Christopher K. & Jonathan Langford, Latter-Day Family Encyclopedia, Thunder Bay Press, San Diego, Calif. 2010

BREWSTER,  Hoyt W. Jr. , Doctrine and Covenants EncycLopedia, Bookcraft, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1988

CLARK, James R., The Pearl of Great Price, Lectur6e Series, Know Your Religion. Extension  Division, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah,  1956.     

FOERSTER, Werner, Vol. 2, A Selection of Gnostic Texts.  Oxford, Clarendon Press, London 1974

HC-HISTORY OF THE CHURCH, ROBERTS  B.H., Vol. 1. Deseret Book Store, Salt Lake City, Utah. 1946

JONAS, Hans, Philosophical Essays, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1974

KELLY, Brian & Petrea, Latter-day History, Covenant Communications, Inc., American Fork, Utah, 2000

LARGEY. Dennis L., Book of Mormon Reference Companion, Deseret Book Co.., Salt Lake City, Utah, 2003

REYNOLDS, George, & Janne M. Sjodal, Commentary on the Pearl of Great Price, Deseret Book Store, Salt Lake City, Utah. 1965

SMITH J.F.,DS, vol. III,  Doctrines of Salvation, Bookcraft, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1956

SHULMAN, Eliezer, The sequence of Events in the Old Testament, Investment Co., of Bank Hapoalim and Ministry of Defense, 1987   

SMITH, Joseph, EG,   Egyptain Alphabet and Grammar, Modern Microfilm  Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1966

SMITH, Joseph Fielding, RE, Revised Doctrine and Covenants Commentary. Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1978

LARGEY, Dennis L. & Larry E.,  Dahl, Doctrine and Covenants Reference Companion, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah,  2012

WOODFORD, Robert J. vol. 1, The Historical Development of the Doctrine and Covenants, BYU  Woodford, Provo, Utah,1974

WILCOX. Dan M.H. Book of Moses, Genesis, and Abraham, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City  Utah, 1963

 

 

 

All research and opionions presented on this site are the sole responsibility of Dr. Einar C. Erickson, and should not be interpreted as official statements of the LDS doctrine, beliefs or practice.
To find out more about the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, please see their offical websites at LDS.org and Mormon.org