Dr. Einar C. Erickson
Ancient Document Mormon Scholar
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There is the lower group called the unredeemed and the second group ordinary Christians saved by faith, and the third group saved by knowledge with eternal bliss.

 THE CREATION OF THE EARTH

THE DAY- BEFORE-DAY ONE, AND DAY ONE

INTRODUCTION

During the past ten years astronomers have been putting together the newly discovered pieces of the story of the creation of the earth and the Universe in which it exists. “In the Church we have five revealed accounts of the Creation. Four of which are in the scriptures.” (Jackson p. 66), Two in Genesis (Gen. 1 & 2); one in Moses, (Moses 2) and another in Abraham, (Abraham 4). There is also the The Non-canonical Apocalypses and Revelatory Treatises. (Erhman p.249) These all have error or errors  in chronology and what was created and when and cannot be correlated with science or cosmology.  A sixth is in the Temple Endowment (TE) which does correlate with cosmological discoveries since 1996, and especially those of the last decade. The TE is way in advance of the state of the modern astronomy models, it can be correlated to some extent, but the science part is still tentative. New equipment, in place and yet to be constructed, will provide more detail. For most of the sources the sequence is incorrect, for life, plant and animal, and sunlight required for the food chain there must be photosynthesis. It is a law, not a theory, and is a requirement for plant life, the essential food chain in the creation of things. The four scriptural accounts have the plant life placed on the earth before the sun is added. (Gen. 1:14, Gen. 2, Moses 2 and 3, and Abraham, (facsimile 2, 4:11-22). For this new study we will utilize Joseph Smith’s observations and Revelations on cosmological events published by the Church from 1830 to 1844 (see below). Some more than 175 years old, these observations and Revelations were a long way ahead of astronomers, Geologists, Archaeologists, historians and others. Their observations were not catching up with Joseph Smith until about 2009. (Clegg p. 1)

LOGIC AND THEORY TESTING

 In 1260 AD the thinkers, Like Rodger Bacon, “resorted to logic rather than theological pronouncements in deciding whether the universe was infinite.” (Clegg 6 p. 27) “Theories weren’t tested against experiments, or observations of the natural world; they were tested by argument.” (Clegg p. 26) And theological explanations were not acceptable. A theory is just that, a theory, it does not have the dignity of being a fact! “In an infinite universe …there will come a point where looking out into space you see nothing, because the light hasn’t managed to get from there to here yet.”  (Clegg. P. 36) In current use is The Big Bang “Bubble Universe” theory. It is finite, with new instruments and tools it is now being measured for size, volume, content and age. There are more than 2100 additional CREATIONAL accounts and myths by other cultures, including the creation myth of the Vikings unfolded in the Epic Poem ‘Voluspa,’ and in the ‘Prose Edda’ by Snorri Sturluson, an ancestor of mine. (Hudson p. 50) The Islandic and Ancient Sumerian accounts have surprising connections. That suggests ancient accounts  were circulating a long time ago. Most  of the discoveries that science have made that are now confirmed by the contributions of Joseph, have been made since 1965.

THE BIG BANG, A FINATE UNIVERSE-HOW OLD?

See the Chart included in this entry, it shows the present current thinking on the age of the BIG BANG BUBBLE; our Universe may be 20 billion years old. In the last decade or so, the age has been updated and increased many times. Many theories have been eliminated. In the middle 1930’s the famous astronomer, Hubble made significantly detailed pronouncements in an address to the National Academy of Science…impressively sweeping statements. He said that the universe was  “a finite sphere” six billion light years across, and that it was made up of 500 trillion nebulae (galaxies), each ….being 80 million times as bright as the Sun.”” (Clegg p. 58) Ten years later they would have the use of the new 200 inch telescope, sky-watchers  would peg the age of the earth at 2 billion years, tentatively, even though the great  English astronomer, Eddington, speculated that evidence then indicated the universe could be as old as 10 billion yeas. Everybody was speculating but very few were studying the great Joseph. They were all falling far short, and clueless. At that time, 1949, I was enrolled at BYU to study Geology and Archaeology.  With me was Udell Blackam; a childhood friend, later to become a professor of Chemistry at BYU, and Lamar Anderson, my cousin, later to become a leading geophysicist at Columbia University and worked on the Moon rocks. We could speculate, based on statements of Joseph, that rocks from the moon and from certain areas on the earth would be older than 4-5 billion years and they were! And we knew from the TE account that the system, earth, moon and sun, put together on the Third Day, was older than 2.5 billion years. We had the latest data Hubble was providing and we knew the 2 billion year age put into the standard model of their day was still way off from what the ancient prophets and Abraham knew; they still had a long way to go to catch up with the great Joseph.  

CATCHING UP WITH JOSEPH      

“Astronomers are always improving their instruments, and in 1948 the triumph in the U.S. of the 100 inch telescope at Mount Wilson’s was bettered by the New 200 inch telescope on  Mount Palomar,“ (Clegg p. 79) which  dominated science for 70 years as new instruments were gradually added, and now whole new arrays of instruments will come into to service  during the next 10  years. Especially the next three years as new instruments come on stream.

DATING OLDER STARS REQUIRES OLDER UNIVERSE.

“The scale of the universe …by the end of the 1950’s …was thought to be between 10 billion and 20 billion years old.” (Clegg p. 79) Recently the age of 13.8 billion is being used for the age of the Universe as we now define it, which is being increased as new discoveries are made and old revelations are being understood. ”A recent study of Star CS- 228792-052, gave its age as 12.5 billion years old, subsequently the star gave ages of 14.2 billion, 15 .5 billion [which places it within the duration of DAY ONE], and 14.1 billion,  and star BD+17 3248 has been calculated as 13.8 billion years.” (Weinberg p. 61) Quasar j043947.08+163415.7 …”shines as bright as 600 trillion suns and … is 12.8 billion  light years away…appearing shortly after light first emerged from the Big Bang. Prior to this, no stars, quasars, or galaxies had been formed. Clearly some changes had to be made.” (Mackey (2) p. 17)  It seems that it would take up to 5 billion years to get from the time of the Big Bang to finally getting a world. With all the things that had to be added after the big bang, such as heavy elements required for human life, the earth had to be formed and placed in its proper place in the habitable belt or zone, around our galaxy and to have the proper ‘matter’ assembled into an earth, sun and moon; any ‘ole’ unorganized matter would not do. All that has to be done to make the world a “habitable world” (Driscoll p. 434), in a ’habitable zone.’ The solar system is much more complicated than originally conceived the new instruments will permit it’s study in great detail. Clearly the 20 Billion age will only be used until more discoveries are made and the time requirements for each aspect of the creational ‘time periods’ are established.

THE DAY- BEFORE- DAY- ONE-BEFORE THE BIG BANG- THERE WAS PLANNING

Mormon doctrine asserts that much time and planning were involved before the Big Bang and the six Day creational activity began. “The Head one of the Gods—called together the Gods and the grand councilors sat in grand council at the head in yonder heavens to bring forth the world and contemplated the creation of the worlds that were created at that time.” (Cannon p. 39; Moses 3:9) This was not the beginning of the creations of earths or worlds.  (Moses 1:30, 33; 7:30-31) And probably not the first world to be assembled from matter unorganized from this place [yonder].  The ‘matter’ for the earth and some other worlds, would be taken from this place where there was suitable matter for an ‘earth’.  “In the beginning the head of the Gods called a council of the Gods. The Gods came together and contemplated a scheme to create this world and the inhabitants.” (Cannon p. 434) Where? Yonder!

A 20 BILLION YEAR-TENTATIVE CHRONOLOGY

We provide a tentative start and end time for the main creative periods which consumed 20 billion years or more. The Gods had a plan (Abraham Chapter 4) But when executed they changed the chronology of the plan to what is now in the TC and more agreeable to the current cosmological findings.                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 DAY ONE started at the BIG BANG and had about a 4 billion year duration. DAY TWO started 16 billion years ago and it had about a 6 billion year duration, ending 10 billion years ago. DAY THREE Started 10 billion years ago, it had a 7.25 billion years duration, ending about 2.25 billion years ago.  DAY FOUR started 2.25 billion years ago and ended after a duration of 1 billion years. DAY FIVE started 1.25 billion years ago and ended after a duration of about 01.25 dillion years, ending about 6 thousand years ago.  We are in the sixth day now, it has been going on since Adam and Eve departed the garden, about six thousand ago.

We will gradually fill in what happened in each day as the new data from all the new surveys, observations, and interpretations that are or will be made available, and note the Mormon parallels that are part of the restoration, now, and since 1965. The most important day is DAY 3, when the earth and moon and sun are configured together. On DAY 3. there are more things happening to prepare the earth to be habitable so “that only one outcome was possible.” (Robinson p. xi)

THE COSMIC BACKGROUND EXPLORER (COBE)

New instruments and new data supported the theory called the Big Bang covering the past 20 billion years. The theorists surmised that an ‘unknown source of unknown size and character, exploded with incredible inflation in its infancy forming a bubble of finite size and age.  We are inside the bubble. No matter where we look we only see as far as the remnants of the explosion as a wall of background radiation (first ‘light’) that encloses our ‘universe’. We cannot see beyond that radiation, we do not know where we are in ‘space,’ or what lies outside our bubble. By the 1970’s the first of two satellites, COBE, (COSMIC BACKGROUND EXPLORER) was approved but because of difficulties and the slowness of obtaining early space launching vehicles, and the Challenger disaster, it was not launched until 1989. (Clegg p. 146) It was two years before they had the interpretation of the data and confirmation of the Cosmic Background Radiation. It would be called “The greatest discovery of the century” (Clegg p. 146) Clegg attributed the statement to Stephen Hawking, the famous crippled scientist, the results would be confirmed in more detail by the later WMAP satellite (the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) WMAP.” (Clegg p. 148) “The WMAP satellite took six months to scan the whole sky.” (Clegg p. 149) And today there is a whole array of instruments that during the coming years will increase our understanding of our Bubble Universe. All of this while we are hurtling through space, while circling the sun at the same time, at about 1,342,000 miles per hour. (Clegg p. 147)

NOT BY CHANCE

A quite “remarkable set of circumstances have had to come into play for us to exist at all.  First there are the basic parameters of the universe…. (Robinson Chapter 10)…, [the Nine Numbers of the Cosmos]..,. Although some of the constants could vary. Many are so finely tuned that it would only take tiny changes before life as we know it became impossible. The forces that influence matter to form, from the strong nuclear force to gravity, couldn’t be varied much before a stable environment becomes impossible …. Neutrons, the neutrally charged particles in atomic nucleus, were less than one percent higher, protons, the other components of the nucleus, would decay into neutron and a positron, making the formation of atoms as we know them impossible it all.  There would be no matter at all …just tiny variations of something called quantum fluctuations…. which would mean that the galaxies would never have formed… a little closer to the sun, and earth would be too hot for life to have emerged a little farther out, too cold. In even the current orbit the planet would be too cold for human beings to have developed if it weren’t for the greenhouse effect. …Without the greenhouse effect existing at all, things would be very unpleasant. …the Earth would not have to be much smaller before it was incapable of holding on to enough oxygen for life to develop. …without the moon, acting as a giant gyroscope to steady us, the Earth would never have had stable enough climate conditions for life to arise. It all seems to add to up an existence that is so carefully balanced that it seems quite natural to ask how this could possibly have happened. …We need to know just what it is we are dealing with: what the universe is.”  (Clegg pp. 17-19; Clegg Chapter 10)). All of this and much more had to be known and planned before anyone pushed the button to detonate the first Supernova explosion to start accumulating the special “matter” for earths. A detailed plan had to be followed.

FIRST SECONDS OF TIME

Events during the first seconds, minutes and years of the Big Bang were essentially controlled by temperature. Below we will describe events based on certain temperatures.  “Energy in radiation was 10 million times greater than the energy in matter… Radiation was king. Light radiation controlled how quickly the universe was expanding consequently, how quickly the temperature was falling...Calculations of nuclear thermal equilibrium had shown that for each element a unique combination of temperature and density would ensure the creation of its isotopes in the relative abundance seen in nature. ”Chown p. 143)

About 410 AD Augustine had asked: “What was God doing before he made the Heaven and the earth?” (Morris p. 110; Clegg Chapter 1). To ask what he had been doing before he created the world was not a meaningless question. But only the Mormons have a significant answer. Ask any Mormon about the diverse geography that is included in the Universe. ”In science serious speculations began in 1922,” (Morris p. 110) and became rampant after 2002, but not sufficiently complete or accurate until after 1965, for the Mormons had the Plan of Salvation.  

THE EARLY PART OF DAY ONE

Many old stars are contained in globular clusters some of which have been found to be more than 13 billion years old. Some are found in our galaxy indicating the age of our galaxy is at least 13 billion years old… the first stars began forming by about 200 million years after the Big  Big Bang…that makes our galaxy at least 13.6 billion years or older. (Kiesman p. 67) 

The heavy elements “like oxygen and carbon, are extremely rare in the universe, given though they are relatively abundant on Earth. ‘The big Bang didn’t make these heavier elements, they were formed in the heart of a star, which, like the pressure-cooker early universe, was hot and dense enough to make nuclei fuse together. The heavy elements on Earth were made in stars (supernova) that exploded, scattering the seeds of life in an expanding cloud.” (Seife p. 68) So someone could say “See, yonder is matter unorganized.” It was star dust out of which everything would be made.  In fact, it is remarkable “if the nuclear forces in a star were only 4 percent stronger He-11 would be stable and you would not be reading this.” (Altschuler p.23)

“Liquid surface water is one of the things that makes Earth unique in the solar system—its only possible because of our planet’s perfect position in the ‘Goldilocks’ zone around the Sun (neither hot enough for water to boil and not cold enough for it to freeze solid).” Also called the habitable Zone. (Sparrow p. 19) At the end of Day one the earth was entirely covered by water and the details of its internal stratification were completed. But in order that humans or any life, could occupy the earth there had to be some ‘dust.’

 THE SUPERNOVAS

Astronomers classify exploding massive stars as Type 1,  ”Nova, which when it explodes it leaves the star fundamentally unchanged.  But energy released by the explosion of a Type 1a or type 2; a Supernova, is a million times that of a Nova…[The]  Supernova  star is either totally destroyed or its central core collapses into a very dense Neutron star or even a black hole…the supernova explodes and ejects most of its mass at very high velocities…In a Supernova explosion, a star becomes as bright as a small galaxy for a few days. Over 400 supernovae have been discovered in other galaxies since systematic searches were begun by Fritz Zwicky in 1937…the Type 1a or 1 supernovae have a …varied light curve then drops to an almost constant magnitude for several weeks before fading further …Their spectra shows that up to 10 times the sun’s mass is ejected at a velocity of about 5,000 miles per second. The pre-supernovae must thus have at least 10 times the Sun’s mass…. such massive stars evolve over less than 100 million years, becoming unstable and exploding…A supernova is expected in the Milky way on average every 30-50 years…one third will be visible to the naked eye.” (Ridpath pp.204-205) The explosion is so great in temperature and pressure that heavy elements are fused. As size and temperature vary from supernova to supernova, it takes the cumulated debris of seven generations of supernova to endow a cloud of matter with the heavy elements required by all life. (Ridpath pp. 204-205) No supernovas; no life of any kind. No earth!

THE RESULTS OF THE FIRST DAY—DAY ONE  

DAY ONE started about 20 billion years ago and had a duration of about   4 billion years. (See page five above) On the first day we get the basic world. The fully differentiated (stratified or layered earth) about 8000 miles in diameter, and slightly oblate, bulging at the equator, because it is spinning at 1000 miles per hour.  It has about a 750 mile diameter solid iron nickel core.  Around this outer core there is a liquid core about 3200 miles below the surface. The lower mantle is about 1800 miles below the surface. (Luhr p. 54) “The Earth’s magnetic field behaves as if there were a powerful bar magnet located at the Planet’s core, tilted at a slight angle  to the axis of rotation (11 degrees at present) …this field  is thought to be produced by the swirling liquid iron of the outer core…Driven by radioactive heat and convention currents  rising through the outer core, the molten iron swirls around and, because it is electrically charged, generates a continuous changing electromagnetic field. (Luhr p. 55) It controls the Aurorae, the ozone, and other features beneficial to the earth and the life on it.  “The magnetism of continental rocks can help indicate how the continents themselves were positioned in the past.” (Luhr p.55) “The globally observed 660-km seismic discontinuity defines the top of the lower mantle and is commonly understood to involve the phase transition of the mineral ringwoodite] to [the minerals. bridgmanite and ferropericlase … the nature of this interface provides constraints on the chemical and dynamic properties of the whole mantle...the natural conclusion is that the whole mantle is convecting on geological time scales.” (Wu p. 736) “The [different] Seismic waves can be used to measure many features [at the boundary] including sharpness, density, elasticity contrast, and topographic variations.” (Wu p. 736) All having an influence on the events occurring in the upper mantel and the crust of the earth, including most of the earthquakes and volcanoes.  

There are irregular areas where plumes of molten material ascend to the surface through volcanic and convective features. Plumes of molten material ascend up through the upper mantel piercing through the crust.  On top of the upper mantel is the thin Conrad Layer, called the crust, up to 70 miles thick in some of the continental areas, the bottom of which is called the ‘Mohorovicic discontinuity,’ where the density of the rock changes, but only about seven miles thick under the oceans.“ (Luhr pp. 54-55)

THE RUSSIANS DRILL A HOLE

In 1970, Russian scientists began at trying to drill through the crust. They only succeeded in drilling, after 19 years, to get 7.6 miles deep. Where they found temperatures high enough to cook a turkey, and to their surprise, the rock was saturated with water. (Aguilar p. 78)

Everywhere the earth was covered with water, there were no features of any kind sticking out of the water. Water was all there was. As yet there was no moon to create tides to help shape the land, and get dust!   

AT THE BANG

Because they do not have knowledge of early particles of matter they have to make assumptions and extrapolate the expansion of the universe backward in time and infer that there must have been a real beginning, a state of infinite temperature and density, which occurred 0.0108 seconds before the temperature would allow photons, electrons, neutrinos, and their corresponding antiparticles. During the early fractions of a second when the universe is expanding and the temperature is cooling what happens depends on the temperature. The first three minutes are discussed in detail in the book by Weinberg, The First Three Minutes, but we are barely setting the stage. When “The temperature of the Universe is 100,000 million degrees Kelvin (10. The universe is filled with an undifferentiated soup of matter and radiation.” (Weinberg p. 102), “Above a threshold temperature of fifteen hundred thousand degrees Kelvin (l.5 x1012) the universe would contain large numbers of particles known as pi mesons, which weight about one-seventh as much as a nuclear particle.”  (Weinberg  p. 102) Radiation would be the first light.  Visible light won’t be present until development of the solar system and white light from the suns and stars is present] on the third day. "And the earth, after it was formed, was empty and desolate, because they had not formed anything but the earth, and darkness reigned upon the face of the deep and the spirit of the Gods was brooding upon the face of the waters. 3. And they (the Gods) said: Let there be light and there was light. 4. The they   (the Gods) comprehended the light, for it was bright. … 5. And this was the first, or the beginning, of that which they called day and night.” (Abraham 4:2-5)

After….0.11 seconds … the temperature of the universe is 30,000 million degrees Kelvin… The universe is dominated by electrons, positrons, neutrinos, anti-neutrinos and photons all high above their threshold temperature…The nuclear particle balance has shifted to 38 percent neutrons and 62 percent protons.” (Weinberg p. 106) The light is radiation light. The sun with its visible light becomes available on the third day.

The temperature of the universe is 10,000 million degrees Kelvin….  1.09 seconds have elapsed…[there is]  some neutrino decoupling …details of the theory of neutrino interactions… are not entirely settled….but it is now equivalent to a mass density 380,000 times that of water. …it is still too hot for neutrons and protons to be bound into atomic nuclei…the decreasing temperature has now allowed the proton… neutron balance to shift to 24 percent neutrons and 76 percent protons… about two seconds have [passed]” (Weinberg  pp. 106-107)

The “temperature of the universe is now 3,000 million degrees Kelvin …13.82 seconds have elapsed …. We are now below the threshold temperature for electrons and positrons…the universe is expanding rapidly…stable nuclei like helium 4, are formed going through the fusion of Helium into tritium and on to deuterium]…Neutrons are still being converted into protons …the balance now is 17 percent  neutrons and 83 percent protons and the temperature becomes…. that of the photons.” (Weinberg pp. 107-108)

“The temperature of the universe is now 1,000 million degrees Kelvin…only  about 70 times hotter than the sun….three minutes and two  seconds of have elapsed….The universe is now cool enough for tritium and helium three as well as ordinary helium nuclei to hold together…but there is a deuterium bottleneck …nuclei  of deuterium do not hold together long enough to be built up, in each 100 seconds 10 percent of the remaining neutrons will decay into protons…the neutron-proton balance is now 14 percent neutrons and 86 percent protons.”  (Weiinberg p. 108)

AFTER THE FIRST THREE MINUTES  

The temperature of the universe is now cooled to 300 million degrees Kelvin… 34 minutes and 40 seconds have elapsed.…mass density is 9.9 percent of water…31 percent in the form of neutrinos, and anti-neutrinos and 69 percent is in the form of photons.  Nuclear processes … stopped ….with about 22-28 percent helium by weight, but the universe is still too hot for stable atoms to hold together. The universe will go on expanding and cooling …for another 700,00 years. At that time the temperature will drop to the point where electrons and nuclei can form stable atoms… the decoupling of matter and radiation will allow matter to begin to form into galaxies and stars… the material left over from the first three minutes, out of which the stars must originally have formed, consisted of 22-28 percent helium with almost all the rest hydrogen.” (Weinberg p. 108-112) “It was “now clear that only the lightest elements were there at the beginning and the rest were produced in stars and supernovae.” (Clegg p.188)

“The first calculation of the cosmological helium production… was carried out by P.J.E. Peebles at Princeton in 1965, shortly after the discovery of the microwave background…a similar result was obtained independently and at almost the same time in a more elaborate calculation by R. Wagoner, W. Fowler, and F. Hoyle…a stunning success for the standard model.…independent estimates that the sun and other stars do start their lives as mostly hydrogen, with about 20-30 percent helium. …the heavy elements were produced in stars, but helium was produced in the early universe, before any of the stars began to cook…large amounts of helium was produced at the end of the first three minutes.”  (Weinberg pp. 113-114) Now the stars, galaxies, and everything present in the universe could be formed, and especially the Supernovas so the matter for earths would be accumulated.  

Analysis  of the data now available  “enabled cosmologists to measure the universe’s contents as 68.3 percent dark energy, 26.8 percent dark matter, and 4.9 percent “normal” matter.” (Naeye p. 24) Plugged into the equations will help define a more accurate cosmological constant.

The just discovered Quasar “dubbed J043947.08+163415.7, appears to shine as bright as 600 trillion suns… and is 12.8 billion years away, (Makey p. 17) will be studied to gain information on the early universe, formation of galaxies and such unusual stars and the early universe.

DAY 2

DAY TWO (See page 5 above). The results of the second day activity is an earth 71 % covered by water and the configured continents established above the water, as   the dry land,  with the varied mountain ranges and streams and rivers with lakes in mountain basins. There were no beaches, sand or coast lines, no tides because there was no moon, but there was intense erosion. Many episodes of mountain building were in progress. Great Rivers and small streams were shaping the land. Today “the earth’s surface is broken into seven major tectonic plates and about a dozen minor ones. The plates are marked by features such as mountains, ocean ridges and deep-sea trenches.” (Luhr p. 106) "And the Gods ordered, saying; let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the earth come up dry; and it was so as they ordered;  10. And the Gods pronounced the dry land, Earth;  and the gathering together of the  waters, pronounced they, “Great Waters” and the God saw that they were obeyed.” (Abraham 4:9-10)  The Gods had to pay attention. That diligence was required is attested to in several other passages: (Abraham 4:12, 18, 21) The Plan was good, but was executed a little differently than planed,.                                                                                                                                                                                           

DAY 3

DAY 3 began 10 billion years ago and had a duration of 7 billion years. (see page 5 above). The sun and moon were added to the system and the continents are reconfigured by movements of crustal plates, with new oceans opening. Nearly 600 million years earlier most continents were joined together to form the supercontinent called Gondwana. Over time, drifting northward from the southern hemisphere they formed the larger supercontinent of Pangaea which stretched from pole to pole. (Luhr p. 30) They have this family reunion about every 750 million years, the present one is called Pangaea and the continents are drifting several centimeters per year toward a point in northern Siberia.

“Plate movements from the present back to the Permian Period show that over the course of about 200 million years, today’s continents evolved from a continents cluster called Pangaea, which stretched from pole to pole... little information exists for earlier tectonic distributions.” (Luhr p.107) These plates reflect the ethnic and cultural make up of the world peoples. This is deliberate, not by chance.

“Radio telescope arrays are helping to provide data about the movements of tectonic plates that is accurate to a fraction of an inch. The radio telescopes of the Very Long Baseline Array, including … the one at Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii, provide accurate measurements of distant quasars. By comparing data from other radio telescopes on other plates around the world, the relative plate motions can be determined.” (Luhr p. 107) “Ancient Mountains, such as the Caledonian belt –which today has remnants either side of the Atlantic…. Fossils of the reptile Mesosaurus have been found in both          Africa and South America.” (Luhr pp 107, 158, 160) Confirming large plate movements in the past.

What Joseph knew

Above is a summary of the timetable of the events of the creational activity upon which this entry into the Web Site is based. From 1835 Joseph had Egyptian records from which he had obtained the Temple Endowment. (See Abraham Facsimile 2) unlocking the chronological aspects of the Creation. In a portion of the exchange of letters between W.W. Phelps to William Smith, Nauvoo, Ill, Dec. 25, 1843,  and published in the Times and Seasons Vol. V. No. 34, City of Nauvoo Ill., Jan. 1, 1844, p. 758, just a few months before the death of the prophet Joseph the following: “Well now. Brother William, when the  house of Israel begin to come into the glorious  mysteries of the Kingdom, and find that Jesus Christ, whose goings forth, as the prophets said, have been from of old, from eternity and that eternity, agreeably to the records found in the catacombs of Egypt, has been going on in this system, not this world, almost two thousand and five hundred and fifty-five millions of years, [2.55 billion] and to know at the same time, that deists, geologist and others are trying to prove that matter must have existed hundreds of thousands of years;- it almost tempts the flesh to fly to God, or muster faith like Enoch to be translated and see and know as we are seen and known...” This quote permits the summary and timetable comparison with the most recent cosmological observations.                                          

We know from the poetry, songs, and other writings of Phelps that Joseph had often communicated to him interesting doctrine as he did in this letter. In this brief note there are many ramifications.

“The flyby of Pluto and Charon by the New Horizons spacecraft provided high resolution images of cratered surfaces embedded in the Kuiper belt, an extensive region of bodies orbiting beyond Neptune. Impact Craters on Pluto and Charon were formed by collisions with other Kuiper belt objects….Some surfaces on Pluto and Charon are likely …4 billion years old.” (Singer p. 955) That helps put the creation of the solar system in the third day.

The source of night glow has been enigmatic …a mechanism that causes such glow in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere about 100 kilometers above Earth’s surface. During the day. Solar radiation breaks up oxygen and ozone, but by night multiquantum vibrational -to-electronic energy transfer facilitates a similar process. The resultant individual oxygen atoms electrically excite surrounding molecules producing night glow.” (KJP p. 1297) 

DAY 4

DAY 4 has a duration of 1 billion years. (See page 5 above) Plants and most food chains are established

DAY 5

DAY 5 has a duration of about 1.255 billion years. (See page 5 above.

Animal life of all forms are established.

"Animal life exploded in diversity and form during the Cambrian period about 500 million years ago. Fu et al, describe an early Cambrian fossil site in China that contain a variety of specimens, more than half of which are previously undescribed…The site rivals previously described Cambrian sites such as the Burgess Shale, and should help to elucidate biological innovation and diversification during this period.”
(SNV p. 1296)

DAY 6- MAN IS CREATED     

DAY 6 started when Adam Eve had eaten the forbidden fruit and became mortals. So it has been going on for about six thousand years.

To be continued in future Restored Doctrines 19, 20, 21 and perhaps more. 

                                        

                                                   BIBLIOGRAPHY

ALTECHULER, Daniel R., Children of the Stars., Cambridge. New York, 2002

AGUILAR, David A. Planets, Stars, and Galaxies, National Geographic Washington, D.C.,2007

CANNON, Donald Q. and Larry E., Dahl, The Prophet Joseph Smith’s King Follett Discourse, BYU Religious Studies Center, Provo, Utah, 1980

CHOWN, Marcus, The Magic Furnace, The Search for the Origins of Atoms, Oxford University Press, New York, 2001 

COLES, Peter, Cosmology, The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, England, 2002 

CLEGG, Brian, Before the Big Bang, St. Martin’s Griffin, New York, 2008

DALEY, Allison C., Treasure Trove of Cambrian Fossils, Science. Vol.  363, Issue 6433, 22 March 2019

EHRMAN, Bart D., Lost Scriptures, Oxford University Press, New York,  2003

FU Dongling, et al. The QingHang biota-Burgess Shale-type fossil Lagerstatte from the early Cambrian of South China, Science Vol. 3, Issue 6433, 22 March 2019

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JACKSON, Kent P., The Restored Gospel and the Book of Genesis, Deseret Book Co., Salt lake City, Utah, 2001

KEISMAN, Allison, Age of Milky Way., Astronomy, Waukesha, Wis., 53187, April, 2019  

KJP Nightglow, Science p. 1297.Vol. 363 Issue 6433, 22 March, 2019

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MACKEY Allison, Meet the Brightest Quasar in the Early Universe, Kalmbach Media, Waukesha. Wi.   Astronomy, May, 2019

PEARSON, Birger A.  Gnosticism, Judaism, and Egyptian Christianity, Fortress Press, Minneapolis, 1990

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ROBINSON, Michael Rowan, The Nine Numbers of the Cosmos, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999   

SEIFE, Charles, Alpha & Omega, Viking, New York, 2003

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SINGER, K. N., ET AL, Impact craters on Pluto and Charon indicate a deficit of small Kuiper Belt Objects, Science 1 March 2019. Vol. 363, issue 6438, Washington DC

SNV Science 22, March 2019 Vol. 363 Issue 6433

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WEINBERG, Steven, Cosmology, Oxford University Press, New York, 2008

WU, Wenbo, et. al. AAAS, Inferring Earth’s discontinuous chemical Layering from the 660-kilometer boundary topography, 15 February 2019, 120005, New York Ave., NW Washington DC, 20005, 2819

, Christine, et.al., Science, Earth’s Rugged lower mantle, 15 February 2019, Vol. 363, Issue 6427, AAAS, 1200 New York Ave Washington DC. 20005

JACKSON, Kent P., The Restored Gospel and the Book of Genesis, Deseret Book Co., Salt lake City, Utah, 2001

KEISMAN, Allison, Age of Milky Way., Astronomy, Waukesha, Wis., 53187, April, 2019  

KJP Nightglow, Science p. 1297.Vol. 363 Issue 6433, 22 March, 2019

GOTT, J., Richard and Robert J. Vanderbet, Sizing Up the Universe, National Geographic, Washington D.C., 2011

MACKEY Allison, Meet the Brightest Quasar in the Early Universe, Kalmbach Media, Waukesha. Wi.   Astronomy, May, 2019

PEARSON, Birger A.  Gnosticism, Judaism, and Egyptian Christianity, Fortress Press, Minneapolis, 1990

LUHR, James F., Earth, Smithsonian, DK Publishing Co., New York, 2003

RIDPATH, Ian, The Illustrated Encyclopdia Of Astronomy and Space   Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York, 1976

ROBINSON, Michael Rowan, The Nine Numbers of the Cosmos, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999   

SEIFE, Charles, Alpha & Omega, Viking, New York, 2003

SHAHAR, Anat, et. Al, What Makes a Planet Habitable, Science, 3 May. Vol. 364, Issue 6439, 2019,  

SINGER, K. N., ET AL, Impact craters on Pluto and Charon indicate a deficit of small Kuiper Belt Objects, Science 1 March 2019. Vol. 363, issue 6438, Washington DC

SNV Science 22, March 2019 Vol. 363 Issue 6433

SPARROW, Giles, Cosmos Close-up, Firefly Books, 2013

STEIN, James D., Cosmic Numbers, The Numbers that define our Universe, Basic Books, New York, 2011.

WEINBERG, Steven, Cosmology, Oxford University Press, New York, 2008

WU, Wenbo, et. al. AAAS, Inferring Earth’s discontinuous chemical Layering from the 660-kilometer boundary topography, 15 February 2019, 120005, New York Ave., NW Washington DC, 20005, 2819

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