THE SACRAMENT AND GETHSEMANE
THINGS YOU OUGHT TO REMEMBER
Recently, in a Sacrament Meeting, I listened carefully to the sacramental prayer on the emblem of the Bread. It includes these words: "...to bless and sanctify this BREAD to the souls of all those who partake of it; that they may EAT IN REMEMBRANCE OF THE BODY OF THY SON...AND WITNESS UNTO THEE, O GOD, THE ETERNAL FATHER...AND ALWAYS REMEMBER HIM..." (Moroni 4:3) [What is it about the BODY of JESUS CHRIST, THE SON OF THE ETERNAL FATHER, that we should ALWAYS REMEMBER? As we will learn below he LAID DOWN HIS BODY FOR US. Why did he? Where did he? When did he? Are the answers to these questions something we should be thinking and REMEMBERING when we partake of the bread? What is it that this simple but intimate act of actual eating a little piece of bread should remind us of? When we are sitting there partaking of the emblems of the sacrament, what have we stored in our minds and hearts about the BODY of JESUS CHRIST, that WHEN we make this oath and covenant we REMEMBER.]
[I thought, What do I know about Jerusalem, a place called Gethsemane, a Fortress called Antonia, a narrow path way through the streets, to a high place called Golgotha? What happened to the body of Christ that I should remember when taking and eating that little piece of bread? How did he lay his BODY down? What in my memory could I recall of the blood of Jesus Christ being shed? When did he shed it, where did he shed it, where were all the places and under what circumstances did he shed his blood? Why did he shed his blood? What could I recall in my memory as I took that little cup representing that blood? What do you remember? What do you really think of or remember when they pass around those simple emblems?]
And the blessing onthe water includes: "...to bless and sanctify this wine [water] to the souls of all those who DRINK OF IT, that they may do it [drink] in REMEMBRANCE OF THE BLOOD OF THY SON, WHICH WAS SHED FOR THEM; ...WITNESS UNTO THEE, O GOD THE ETERNAL FATHER, THAT THEY DO ALWAYS REMEMBER HIM..."
Most certainly I wanted to refresh my memory about the details of the ATONEMENT. Taking that little piece of bread, drinking that little cup of water REQUIRED that I REMEMBER HIM, what he did, how he did it, and when he did it. So, I started with the remarkable compilation by Todd G. Andersen: His Book: "THE GOSPELS MADE WHOLE, ONE COMPLETE STORY OF JESUS CHRIST, FROM THE KING JAMES VERSION, JOSEH SMITH TRANSLATION, BOOK OF MORMON, DOCTRINE AND COVENEANTS, PEARL OF GREAT PRICE, AND TEACHINGS OF THE PROPHET JOSEPH SMITH." (Andersen pp. 240-258) Anderson's book should be required reading my all LDS members. I will quote from it extensively below.
I had been in Jerusalem just recently and my mind was fresh with all had seen and heard again. I had been there many times before. This last time I led a tour of many friends and many of my family. One of my last talks was in the GARDEN OF GETHSAMANE. That day, I wept there, in remembrance. In my library there are a series of Translators Handbooks that are used by those wanting to translate the ancient Hebrew or Greek of the ancient texts into another language, even English. I revisited them to gain a little more detail of what the original language might have said and what that original language contained that needed to be clearly stated when translated into some other language. I will refer to them in an effort to help you find a series of images or a vision of things to remember when eating that little piece of bread and drinking that little cup of water.
IT WAS THE PASSOVER, IT WAS IN JERUSALEM, A LONG, LONG TIME AGO AND FAR, FAR AWAY - JESUS INSTITUTES THE SACREMENT
In what follows, most of the time, my comments are in brackets. For emphasis I have extensively highlighted and used bold type. There are many superb sources and books that deal with the episode in GETHSAMANE, that could have been referenced, including one of the best, JESUS THE CHRIST, by James E. Talmage who said "Upon this authority, (D&C 27:1-4), the Latter-day Saints, in preference to wine concerning the purity of which they are not assured...that it mattereth not what ye shall eat or what ye shall drink when you partake of the SACRAMENT, if it so be that ye do it with an eye single to my glory--REMEMBERING UNTO THE FATHER MY BODY WHICH WAS LAID DOWN FOR YOU, AND MY BLOOD WHICH WAS SHED FOR THE REMISSION OF YOUR SINS." (James E. Talmage, Articles of Faith pp. 179-180; Hunter pp. 244) but I wanted to emphasize other aspects and other sources. Most are aware of these highly respected tests. But Todd Andersen's compilation is a very good overview to start with.
TODD ANDERSEN'S: THE GOSPELS MADE WHOLE-COMBINED WITH OTHER SOURCES
"...Jesus knew that this hour had come, that he should depart out of this world unto the Father... With fervency I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer [die]...which is written in the prophets concerning me...he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said 'take this and divide it among yourselves [then he washed their feet] ...Jesus did this that the law might be fulfilled...[Mathew keeps reminding us of ancient prophecies that Christ keep's fulfilling]... your Lord and Master, has washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one another's feet. [The Passover Tradition is fulfilled in the Sacrament]...And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and broke it and gave thanks and blessed it and gave to his disciples and said, Take it, and eat, Behold this is for you to do in REMEMBRANCE OF MY body which I GIVE as a ransom for you; this in REMEMBRANCE OF ME; for as often as ye do this ye will REMEMBER this hour that I was with you...[remember when he was on earth] And likewise he took also the cup after supper, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them saying, drink of it, all of you; ...and they all drank of it. And he said unto them, this cup is in remembrance of my BLOOD of the New Testament which I give unto you, which is shed for you and as many as shall believe on my name, for the remission of their sins; for of me ye shall bear record unto all the world...I give unto you a commandment, that ye shall observe to do the things which ye have seen me do, and bear record of me even unto the end. And as often as ye do this ordinance, ye will remember me in this hour that I was with you and drank with you of this cup, even the last time in my ministry.,
"...of this ye shall bear record; that I will not drink hence forth of the fruit of the vine with you, until that day when the kingdom of God and I shall come and drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom. And now they were grieved, and wept over him. Ye are they who have continued with me in my trials...I know whom I have chosen; but that the scripture may be fulfilled. 'He that eateth bread with me, hath lifted up his heel against me..." Now I tell you before it has come to pass, ye may believe that I am the Christ. [ 'IT' here is an oblique, but direct reference to the ATONEMENT he is to soon make] When Jesus had thus said, and as they sat and did eat, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said,..behold the hand of him who betrayeth me is with me on the table. [the suffering of the ATONEMENT HAD BEGUN-remember this.]
"And they all began to be very sorrowful...woe unto that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It had been good for that man if he had never been born...he had dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. Then Judas, who later betrayed him answered and said "Master is it I"...Jesus said...."it is as thou hast said" ...Satan having put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him,[For a measly twenty- pieces of silver, the price of male slave] now entered into him. Then said Jesus unto him "That which thou doest, do quickly; but beware of innocent blood..."(D&C 132:27) [a warning and reference to the unforgivable sin written in the LAMB'S BOOK OF LIFE, the he shall commit no murder whereby to shed INNOCENT BLOOD, D&C 132:19) ] He then having received the sop, went immediately out and it was night...when he had gone out, Jesus said, 'Now is the Son of Man gloried, and God is glorified in him...Where I go ye cannot come...after I have risen again, I will go before you into Galilee.” [Most of the disciples were not getting the message]
"And now I have told you before IT shall come to pass, that when IT has come to pass, ye might believe...the prince of darkness who is of this world cometh, but hath no power over me....I tell you these things, that ye may know that I love the Father; and as the Father gave me commandment, even so I do."
"And when they had sang a hymn, Jesus said, 'arise, let us go hence.' [to the proscribed PLACE, where IT was to happen] And he came out, and went as he was accustomed [wont to do] into the Mount of Olives; and his disciples followed him. .. this cometh to pass that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law...'But now I go my way to him who sent me and none of you asketh me, where goest thou: But Because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your hearts. ..it is expedient for you that I go away for if I go not away the comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. ...A little while , and ye shall not see me; and again, a little while, and ye shall see me, because I go to the Father. ...ye shall weep and lament, but the world [all the worlds] shall rejoice and ye shall be sorrowful but your sorrow shall be turned unto joy...in the world ye shall have tribulation; but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world. [Father] I have glorified thee on the earth; I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do...While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name; those whom thou gavest me. I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled...O righteous Father, the world hath not known thee; but I have known thee, and these have known that thou hast sent me...” (Andersen pp. 242-245)
JESUS and his disciples leave the upper room where they had participated in the great Passover events. As significant as these events are others have discussed them. The express purpose of this study is to examine aspects of his suffering and the mysteries of his prayers in detail so one can RECALL and REMEMBER when partaking of the SACRAMENT. Details to think about during the SACRAMENT SERVICE that are found in the GETHSEMANE EXPERIENCE.
Anderson continues: "When Jesus had spoken these words he went forth with his disciples over the brook Kidron, and then they came to a PLACE which was called GETHSEMANE, which was a GARDEN (John 18:1) into which he entered with his disciples. And the disciples began to be very much amazed, and to be very heavy, and to complain in their hearts wondering if this be the Messiah [without the Holy Ghost to certify to them who he was, they could not know for sure.] (See also: McConkie's Doctrinal New Testament Commentary, The Gospels, p. 775)
"And Jesus, knowing their hearts, said unto his disciples 'Sit ye here, while I shall go yonder and pray." And he took with him Peter and James and John, the two sons of Zebedee, AND BEGAN TO BE SORROWFUL AND VERY HEAVY.THE SORROW IS EVEN UNTO DEATH, IN MY HEART IT IS SO GREAT THAT IT ALMOST CRUSHES ME. [the pain of the atonement was already pressing on him, even before he got to the PLACE] ...[began, is awkward when used with emotions like sorrowful and troubled]. HE BECAME VERY SAD AND GREATLY UPSET, GRIEF AND ANGUISH CAME OVER HIM.(Newman p. 837) [The ATONEMENT was now in progress and when translating the details and sufferings into another language, the choice of words in that other language must express these sufferings co get an accurate translation. In most English versions the translation is inadequate. That is why I considered assembling this study. I want to really know as much as possible what I should be remembering.]
Anderson's continues: "And when he was at the PLACE [his destination in the GARDEN called GETHSEMANE], he rebuked them and said unto them, 'My soul is EXCEEDINGLY SORROWFUL, EVEN UNTO DEATH;' [he did not want any interruption of what he was going to do and experience], 'wait here and watch with me,' [share my vigil, See Newman p.838)] Pray that ye enter not into temptation.' [This last expression has been misunderstood]
"And he went forward a little farther, and he was withdrawn from them about a stone's cast [30 yards, or 90 feet] and kneeled down [abruptly, under great pressure] and then fell on his face on the ground. [in this situation he prays; this is going to be repeated three times], and he PRAYED, THAT IF IT WERE POSSIBLE THE HOUR MIGHT PASS FROM HIM, SAYING 'ABBA, [DADDY] O MY FATHER, ALL THINGS ARE POSSIBLE UNTO THEE; IF THOU BE WILLING AND IF IT BE POSSIBLE, REMOVE THIS CUP [ [OF SUFFERING] FROM ME; [He is already feeling the sudden impress of the weight of the atonement, it is worse than he had contemplated it would be necessary to bear] NETHERLESS NOT MY WILL, BUT THINE BE DONE.' [AS THOU WILT]'
“And when he rose up [from praying face down, lying prostrate on the ground, he seemed to have prayed an endured suffering for about an hour. Then there was a short period of relief'] from prayer, and came to his disciples, he found them sleeping, for they were filled with sorrow [he woke them up] and said unto 'Peter, Simon, why sleep ye? What, could ye not watch with me ONE HOUR? Rise, watch ye and pray lest ye enter into temptation.' And they said unto him 'The spirit truly is ready and willing, but the flesh is weak.'” (Andersen p. 256)
"And he went away again the SECOND TIME, and PRAYED and spoke the same words, saying, ]Daddy] O my Father, if this cup may not pass from me, except I drink it, THY WILL BE DONE.'' [Again he prayed for about an hour] And when he returned, he found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy; neither knew they what to answer him.
"And he left them, and went away again, [and feel on his knees and then on his face] and PRAYED THE THIRD TIME,[and endured the intense suffering.] saying the same words.
"And there appeared an ANGEL [the Greek term is angelos, while one, perhaps more than one] came unto him from heaven, [probably, as some think, it was MICHAEL. Was he the second born in the spirit world? He and Christ has created all the world that careen in space]. 'strengthening him.' [his presence may have helped Christ to endure what was happening. The intensity of suffering was exceeding all Christ's expectations]
"And BEING IN AGONY, He PRAYED MORE EARNESTLY; and he SWEAT GREAT DROPS OF BLOOD FALLING DOWN TO THE GROUND." (Anderson pp. 241-257)
Why was shedding his blood necessary?[As far as the record provides, this is the first instance of his blood being shed, his blood had to be shed] (Romans 5:6-12, Eph. 1:6-7; "But Christ...by his blood...entered ...into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us. (Hebrews 9:12-14; ...an sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ...the precious blood of Christ as of a lamb, (l Peter 1:2, 18-20; behold the blood of thy Son which was shed--the blood of him whom thou gavest D&C 35:3-5; Jesus...wrought out this perfect atonement through the shedding of his own blood D&C76-69; ...it mattereth not what ye shall EAT or ...DRINK, when ye partake of the SACREMENT, if it so be that ye do it with an eye single to my glory...REMEMBERING unto the Father my BODY WHICH WAS LAID DOWN for you and my BLOOD WHICH WAS SHED for the REMISSION OF YOUR SINS. (D&C 27:2) And almost all things are by the law purged WITH BLOOD and WITHOUT SHEDDING OF BLOOD [THERE) IS NO REMISSION [OF SIN]. (Hebrews 9:19-22) "for you was SLAIN, and hast redeemed us to God by thy BLOOD. (Rev. 5:9-10) From the time it was explained to Adam that the blood sacrifices demanded by the Father, were in anticipation and SIMILITUDE of the SACRIFICE of the ONLY BEGOTTEN OF THE FATHER. (Roberts p. 48) "I am the GOD of Israel, and the GOD of the whole earth [AND ALL WORLDS], AND HAVE BEEN SLAIN for the SINS OF THE WORLD [AND ALL WORLDS]. (3 Nephi 11:10-14) "...SALVATION WAS , and IS, and IS TO COME, IN and THROUGH the ATONING BLOOD OF CHIRST, the Lord Omnipotent..." (Mosiah 3:16-19)
[This second prayer probably lasted about an hour also like the others with some kind of relief after each, Three times he was brought to his knees and then prostrate on the ground in the most fervent prayer an indestructible God could exert himself to utter. SUFFER- FALL-PRAY, SUFFER-, FALL-PRAY, SUFFER- FALL-PRAY! THREE TIMES!]
"And then he came to his disciples the THIRD TIME, AND SAID UNTO THEM. 'SLEEP ON NOW AND TAKE YOUR REST.' [It is not clear from the record whether or not Michael attended Christ this third time. Nothing is said about what he did while they slept waiting for Judas to come. It is evident from the above and what will followed that the fierceness of the full wrath of Almighty God is a terrifying thing to experience.] Christ had experienced "THE FIERCENESS OF THE WRATH OF ALMIGHTY GOD, " (D&C 76:107; 88:106) especially during the second and third prayer and episode of suffering.]
"And after they had finished their sleep, he said unto them. 'Arise, and let us be going. Behold he who betrayed me is at hand.' And Judas also, who betrayed him, knew the PLACE; for Jesus often went there with his disciples. (Andersen pp. 224-258) But that is another story.
THE TRANSLATORS HANDBOOKS
Todd Andersen's compilation extracted above is an overview of the GETHSAMANE experience. But by looking close at the RECONSTRUCTED ORIGINAL GREEK TEXT , or as close as they can come to retrieving the original text, we will find details that will permit one to expand his knowledge of what happened in GETHSAMANE and provide additional significant understanding of what should be REMEMBERED when partaking of the SACREMENT. At least knowing about what happened may permit us to recall what we can to comply with the SACREMENT COVENANT. We will look at the Translators Handbooks of each of the Gospels and enlarge our understanding of Christ's suffering in the little GROVE of olive trees in the GARDEN of GETHSAMANE.
THE GOSPEL OF MARK: NOTES FROM THE TRANSLATORS HANDBOOK ON THE GOSPEL OF MARK (BRATCHER pp. 439-454)
During the Last Supper "...as they were eating, he TOOK BREAD,
eklasen: he broke into pieces,
labete: gave to each of them, AND BLESSED, AND BROKE IT, AND GAVE IT TO THEM
touto estin to soma mou: .....TAKE; THIS IS MY BODY- body must not be translated as corpse, it means 'my meat and bones' the living body in which one dwells. (Bratcher p. 439)
poterion eucharistesas eulogesas : and he took a cup, and when he had given thanks, blessed it, he GAVE IT TO THEM, AND THEY ALL DRANK OF IT
[And he said to them,] "this is the BLOOD OF
mou dishtekes kaines MY NEW COVENANT, which is poured out for many (Bratcher pp. 439-4410
[After the Passover Supper]:
chorio: Jesus and his disciples went to a PLACE, A SMALL AREA. a grove of trees [which would have given him some privacy] which was called GETHSMANE: this is only in Mark. The word is derived from GATH-SEMANE, OIL (olive) PRESS... (Bratcher p. 445)
kathisate: you sit here
heos proseuxomai: while I pray
And he took with him Peter and James and John,
erxato: 'he began' [while he was still with the three disciples]
ekthambeisthai kai ademonein: 'to be extremely distressed and troubled,' acompound of bewilderment, fear, uncertainty and anxiety, nowhere else portrayed in such vivid terms as here. in MARK, 'Shuddering awe, amazement, deep distress'; amazed awe...overpowering mental distress... dread...full of terror...dismay...appalled...surprised and terrified...fright and anguish'.
ekthambeo, thambeomai: a distress which is the result of SURPRISE, a dread caused by something UNEXPECTED
ademoneo: This is found only in Mark. To be in anxiety and anguish caused by uncertainty and bewilderment. A deep despondency. (Bratcher pp. 445-446; Mark 14:33) "More literally translated 'started to be STUNNED and to be SORELY TROUBLED'." (Ludlow p. 251)
The translation does not refer only to purely physical trouble and hardship, it must express SEVERE mental [SPIRITUAL ] distress. (Bratcher p. 446)
perilupos:My soul [the center of inner life] is very SORROWFUL, (BORE THE WEIGHT OF THE WORLD'S SORROWS, McConkie Doctrinal New Testament Commentary l:775) " my whole being is extremely grieved. Though missed by some translators the meaning could well be a term which designates the part of the personality which lives on after death. [Might one assume that Jesus was already dying, in his soul, and that GETHSEMANE was where MUCH of the ATONEMENT was worked out, though his actual physical dying was the crucifixion.] (Bratcher pp. 446-447; Mark 14:34) That is the subject of a different story.
estin he psuche mou: unto death, to the point of dying "The MIND, [or spirit], no less than the body may be hurt, wounded as deeply as the body and carry the scars as the evidence of its wounds as long." (Roberts p. 130)
heos thanatou:a sorrow which well-nigh kills. (Mark 14:34)
proselthon mikron: going a little farther, going about 90 feet,
epipten epi tes ges: he FELL on the ground, he [deliberately] prostrated himself on the ground, an attitude of supplication and prayer.
proseucheto hina: he prayed that
ei dunation : if possible, if it could be done,
pareithe ap autou he hora: the hour might pass from him (Bratcher p. 447; Mark 14:34-35)
"The silence of GOD [the FATHER] in the presence of that prayer tells us that it was NOT possible for other means to be devised for man's salvation...and thus it must be."(Roberts p. 124) This is the basic tenet for SOTERIOLOGY, WHICH IS THAT BRANCH OF THEOLOGICAL SCIENCE WHICH TREATS OF THE WORK OF THE REDEEMER AND DIVINE AGENCY IN THE SALVATION OF SOULS." (Roberts p. 135)
parerchomai: make it pass far away from me, the initiation of the suffering was far in EXCESS of what he had expected.
he hora: the [approaching] HOUR [of the passion] that time or event, with a nuance of divine predestination or foreordination, not simply an indication of time, but supremely of the content, that which would happen to him in that time. (Bratcher p. 448; Mark 14:35)
"Only a GOD can render satisfaction to the insulted honor and majesty of God. Only Diety can satisfy the claims of Deity. And there must be the Power over death, there must be a Power of life that that which was lost may be restored. And the shedding of BLOOD and death of a deity could do this." (Roberts p. 94) "Almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without SHEDDING OF BLOOD [THERE] IS NO REMISSION [OF SIN]". (Hebrews 9:12-14, 22) That is THE LAW! "...the FATHER withdrew Himself, withdrew His spirit, and cast a veil over Him ?That is what made HIM sweat BLOOD. If he had had the power of God upon Him, He would not have sweat blood...[on the cross, He had pleaded] with the FATHER not to forsake him. "No" says the FATHER, "you must have your trials as well as others." (Brigham Young J.D., Vol. 3:205-206) [When the FATHER turned away, he wept]
THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE SON TO THE FATHER
abba ho pater: ABBA FATHER, Daddy. Abba represents the Aramaic 'aba' 'Father'...this bi-lingual expression was used in prayer...actually mean 'father.' [No more intimate term could characterize the relationship of Christ with his father especially in the hours just ahead. All eternity had been anticipating these hours.] "The pronouns used in Greek are emphatic. In translation he cannot deny his Son ship." [He is literally addressing his spiritual and physical father. But he is the son of two mothers]. (Bratcher p. 448-449; Mark 14:36)
panta dunata, parenegke: [Only here in Mark] All things are possible , you can do all things, remove this cup from me, turn aside, cause to pass by, this event, you are able to do everything...but do not let it happen just as I want...but the desire of your heart. (Bratcher p. 448-449)
"The Gospel, its Theology, stands committed to the sublime doctrine that the Universe in every way is under the reign of law; and hence, in some way, the ATONEMENT, by and through which man is redeemed; the necessity,--the ABSOLUTE NECESSITY--for it: is based on the existence of some law that governs all." (Roberts p. 81)
to poterion touto: This cup, this hour. Do not what I want, do not let it happen just as I want, not the desire of my heart, but the desire of your heart. Thy will be done! [With the meaning, I will endure it.] (Bratcher p. 448-449; Mark 14:36-37) "The severity of the ATONEMENT may be justified if viewed with reference to what it purchased for man," (Roberts p. 126) and whatever it cost the Christ to pay. ouch ischusas: In moments of relief, he came and found them sleeping, were you not able
nuan hiran: gregoresai, erchesthai...heuriskein...katheudein...ouch ischusas: to watch, be able to stay awake for one hour, as little as one hour?Was he hinting that he had been gone about only one hour? Stay awake, be strong, stay alert (Bratcher p. 449-459; Mark 14:37) "The INTELLIGENCIES of the universe are so bound together in sympathetic relations that at need they can suffer for each other, as well as with each other and because of each other." (Roberts p. 132)
gregoreite kai proseuchesthe kina,and pray you will not be tempted or you may fall when Satan tries you, your heart desires to do good, but your heart is weak, stay alert. peirasmon, (only herein Mark), temptation leading to sin, penuma, the spirit is indeed, ready, willing, prothumon: (only here Mark,) but the spirit is eager, athenes, (only here in Mark,) the flesh is weak, powerless, [you may] fall when Satan tries you. (Bratcher p. 450-451; Mark 14:38-39)
apelthon, ton auton logon, going away from the three disciples, [he prostrated himself] and said the same prayer, the same petition, the same words as the previous prayer, he talked to god just as he had done before. (Bratcher p. 450-451; Mark 14:39)
And again he came [went back] and found them sleeping, they would scarcely open their eyes, this is the SECOND TIME, they did not know what to say to him, they were weighted down, their eye were very heavy (Bratcher p. 451; Mark 14:40)
And he came again, the THIRD TIME, and said to them: 'are you still sleeping and taking your rest? He had returned to the PLACE, again prostrated himself in prayer and said the same prayer as before and talked with the Father as he had before. (Bratcher p. 451-452; Mark 14:41) [One would like to have some inclination of the content of the three prayers, intimate as they may have been.]
"It is enough; the hour has come; the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Rise let us be going, let us go to meet the approaching group." (Bratcher p. 453-454; Mark 14:42)
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE: NOTES FROM THE TRANSLATORS HANDBOOK ON THE GOSPEL OF LUKE (Reiling pp. 699-703)
The account of the ATONEMENT found in LUKE, is very brief. Luke does not refer to GETHSEMANE, he refers to where the events are to happen as THE PLACE, [a PLACE in the GARDEN in GETHSEMANE], that he knew about. The eight stayed behind while Christ continued on with Peter, James and John. Christ left these three at another locality while, alone, he continued to the pre-determined area in the GARDEN, they all knew as THE PLACE, where HE is was 'WON'T TO GO'
"And he came out, and went , as was his CUSTOM, (Luke 22:39) to the Mount of Olives; and he disciples followed him." (Reilinber p. 699)
"And when he came to THE PLACE, he said to them 'PRAY THAT YOU MAY NOT ENTER INTO TEMPTATION, meaning, pray that you not be tried and tested.
genomenos de epi tou topou when he reached the usual PLACE , the PLACE he had in mind, they were to pray to make sure they can endure being TRIED or TESTED, because God is the implied agent or initiator. (Reiling p. 699-700; Luke 22:40)
And he withdrew from them [the three disciples he left at the last stop] about a stone's throw,
bole a stone's throw, about 90 feet, and knelt down and prayed, he fell on his knees under the pressure of what was happening.
theis tga gonata: After bending his knees- to fall on one's knees,
proseucheto: He prayed for some time, (Reiling pp. 699-700; Luke 22:40-41) [an hour?]
ei boulei: [In translating these words one has to convey this entire meaning:]"FATHER, IF THOU ARE WILLING, REMOVE THIS CUP FROM ME; IF YOU WILL, IF YOU DECIDE SO, NEVERTHELESS NOT MY WILL, BUT THINE, BE DONE."
ginestho: What must happen, must happen. (Reiling p. 700-701; Luke 22:42) [Christ had said "I tell you that this scripture must be fulfilled in me....for what is written about me has its fulfillment." Luke 22:36-37]
ophthe de ato aggelos op' ouranou : AND THERE APPEARED TO HIM AN ANGEL FROM HEAVEN, STRENGTHENING HIM. [Recall the famous painting shows the angel hovering over the Christ]
[there appeared to him an ANGEL, he was aware of the presence of the ANGEL, coming from heaven, there may have been more than one]
enishuoon auton: to give, or inspire strength, moral strength, (Reiling p. 701; Luke 22:43)
[Following the coming of the angel, thought to have been Michael, the ATONEMENT reached its highest peak when HIS BLOOD WAS SHED, to fulfill the symbol of water in the sacrament, and at baptism.]
...AND BEING IN AN AGONY, in great anguish and distress, his heart was oppressed, broken with anguish, the vehemence of the emotion, his AGONY made him pray MORE EARNESTLY, SERIOUSLY, INTENSELY [Elder Neil Maxwell, in one of his last publications said Christ volunteered to accept additional AGONY for those required to carry a burden of undeserved adversity]. "In our original natures we are uncreated and unequal. Individual differences (and therefore needs) predate mortality and even our beginnings as spirits...you counseled intimately with God the Father...Freely, fully, and with courage...you comprehended your actual appointed mission in this world, designed to meet your individual needs and those who would depend upon you. Perhaps you anticipated these exact circumstances...you recognized that, whatever the price, the increased glory, light and power of the Divine was in every way worth it!...It is the completely voluntary, and completely undeserved suffering of the lamb slain from before the foundation of the world' [that] ...all your looses will be made up to you in the resurrection provided you continue faithful. By the vision of the almighty I have seen it. (Teachings of Joseph Smith p. 296, in Madsen pp. 57-61)
kai genomenos en agonia: and becoming greatly distressed, anguished,
ektenesteron proseucheto he prayed more fervently, [how does a god pray more fervently?]
jau ageneti ho hidros autou hosei thromboi haimatos: and his sweat, perspiration, became like drops of BLOOD, TRICKLED, DRIPPED, to the ground (Reiling pp. 701-702)
Very early in the restoration JESUS himself testified of the moments and his experience in that PLACE. "Which suffering caused MYSELF EVEN GOD, the greatest of ALL, to TREMBLE BECAUSE OF PAIN, and to BLEED AT EVERY PORE, and to SUFFER BOTH BODY AND SPIRIT--and WOULD that I might NOT DRINK THE BITTER CUP , and SHRINK-"...I PARTOOK and FINISHED MY PREPARATIONS FOR THE CHILDREN OF MEN." (D&C 19:18) [We can all remember this PERSONAL TESTIMONY of Christ about what he suffered in body and how he .]
katabainontos epi ten gen: going down to the ground, falling on the ground, going with haimatos: [abundantly] (Luke 22:44; Reiling p. 702)
And when he arising from praying, he came to the disciples and found them sleeping for sorrow, overwhelmed, worn out, because they were very sad so great was their grief (Luke 22:45)
And he said unto them, "Why do you sleep? How is it possible that you are asleep? expressing astonishment.
anastantes proseuchesthe: Rise and pray, rise from you lying position and stand on your feet. that you may not be tried and tested, (enter into temptation.) (Luke 22:46)
While he was still speaking, there came a crowed, [a military term for a band or troop], and the man called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them, walking in front of. He drew near to Jesus to kiss him: (Luke 22:47; Newman pp. 837-843)
THE GOSPEL OF MATHEW: NOTES FROM THE TRANSLATORS HANDBOOK ON THE GOSPEL OF MATHEW (Newman pp. 828-845)
[At the LORD'S SUPPER]"While they were eating...Jesus took a piece of bread...gave it to his disciples...take and eat it...this is my body...("And this you shall do in remembrance of my body which I HAVE SHOWN UNTO YOU." 3 Nephi 18:7) he took a cup (full of wine]...gave it to them Drink it, all of you...Each of you, drink some of the wine from this cup. ..this is my blood...my blood poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins." (Mathew 26:26-28 in Newman pp. 828-830)
"'...Jesus went with his disciples to A PLACE called GETHSEMANE, and he said unto them, all his disciples, [eight of them] 'Sit here while I go over there [to the PLACE] and pray..." (Mathew 26:36; Newman p. 837)
[Only Mark and Mathew refer to GETHSEMANE, Luke only refers TO THE PLACE, it is John that calls it A GARDEN, but John has nothing to say about GETHSEMANE at all]! (Clark p. 413)
"He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee. GRIEF AND ANGUISH CAME OVER HIM." (Mathew 26:37; Newman p. 237) [The ATONEMENT suffering had began during the Last Supper, now it came with great force, distress of mind, he became very sad and greatly upset, sorrowful and troubled.]
'Then he said to them "the SORROW in my heart is so great that it almost CRUSHES me. My HEART is ready to BREAK with GRIEF, on me there lies a burden which is about to CRUSH me, even unto DEATH , it is so great it could even bring on my DEATH, over come and DESTROY me." (Mathew 26:38; Newman p. 838) [whatever language one translates this verse from Mathew into, must make sure the choice of words convey this comprehensive meaning] "Keep watch with me, share my vigil, emphasizing a relationship between Jesus and his disciples in a way that Mark does not." (Newman p. 838)
''He went a little father, threw himself face downward on the ground, and prayed, an intentional assumption of this position, for FERVENT prayer: "MY FATHER, IF IT IS POSSIBLE, TAKE THIS CUP OF SUFFERING, THIS BITTER ORDEAL, FROM ME! YET NOT WHAT I WANT, BUT WHAT YOU WANT... IF YOU CAN DO IT." The prayer is one of direct discourse. Avoided is the Aramaic word for Father ABBA, OR DADDY, used by MARK 14:36. "MY FATHER, PERMIT ME, IF YOUCAN, TO ESCAPE THIS CUP OF SUFFERING, DON'T MAKE ME TAKE THIS CUP, LET ME AVOID HAVING TO GO THROUGH THIS EXPERIENCE OF SUFFERING... BUT WHAT MUST HAPPEN IS WHAT YOU WANT, NOT WHAT I WANT." Newman p. 838-839; Matthew 26:39) [The prayer seems so short, but the pleading and ongoing suffering must have lasted for about an hour. We can only imagine the content of suffering for that hour.] "Christ's body not only kneels but stretches out under the weight upon him--drawn, spent, limp, anguished, writhing under the strain." (Madsen 2008, p. 8)
"Then he returned to the three disciples and found them asleep; and he said to Peter. 'So, You can't even keep watch with me for an hour? How is it that you three were not able to keep watch with me for even ONE HOUR?" [Hinting, like in MARK, again that he had been gone about an hour, with relief between episodes of fervent prayer.] (Newman pp. 838-839)
"Keep watch and pray to God that you are not tempted, then you won't be tempted. Human nature is frail, your spirit is willing, but human nature is weak, you will be put to the test you will have a trial." [The accepted translations simply does not convey what is intended here, but Newman does.] (Newman p. 848)
"Once more Jesus went away and prayed: "My FATHER, IF THIS CUP OF SUFFERING CANNOT BE TAKEN AWAY UNLESS I DRINK- EXPERIENCE IT, YOUR WILL BE DONE, if there is no other way, and I must drink this cup of suffering, then what you want must be done. Father, if there is no other way, and I must drink this cup of suffering then what you want must be done...Father, if I must experience this suffering...thy will be done." (Newman pp. 840-841)
"He returned once more WHEN HE HAD FINISHED PRAYING. [The entire time he was gone, each time, was about an hour that he was engaged in prayer and suffering], and found the disciples asleep: they could not keep their eyes open, indicating the inability to stay awake." (Newman p. 841; Mathew 26:43)
" again Jesus left them, went away to the PLACE, AND PRAYED A THIRD TIME, SAYING THE SAME WORDS." The same words probably preceded the prayer that followed as suffering continued to be heaped upon him.(Newman pp; 841-842 )
”Then he returned to the disciples and said, 'Are you still sleeping and resting?" [They had missed their opportunity to stay awake and keep watch for Jesus. In this twenty first century are we asleep on the watch we should be awake?] "Look the hour, (a definite moment in time) has come for the son of Man to be handed over to the power of sinful men, he is betrayed by God's enemies. Get up, let us go, Look, here is the man who is betraying me!" (Newman p. 842)
THE GOSPEL OF JOHN: NOTES FROM THE TRANSLATORS HANDBOOK ON THE GOSPEL OF JOHN (NEWMAN AND NIDA 1980, p. 426)
"It was the day before the Passover Festival. Jesus KNEW that the HOUR HAD COME for him to leave this world and go to the FATHER. (Newman 1980, p. 426; John 13:1) "Jesus knew that the time had come for him to leave this world and go to HIS FATHER..."for languages that require an indication of kinship relations, it may be necessary to say HIS FATHER." (Newman p. 427)
[After the PASSOVER SUPPER was over, JESUS gave a great prayer]. "After JESUS had said this prayer, he left with his disciples and went across Kidron Brook. There was a GARDEN in that PLACE, and JESUS and disciples went in." (Newman 1980 p. 548, John 18:1)
[Then follows the account of the arrest of JESUS and then his crucifixion. There is NO ACCOUNT in the GOSPEL OF JOHN about what happened in GETHSAMANE! And NO explanation why it is missing is given, but modern scripture tells us something was known by John of what transpired there but we are not to know it yet. "And John saw and bore record of the fulness of my glory, and the fulness of John's record is hereafter to be revealed." (D&C 93:6) So there are some things we will learn about at a later date. Something, no doubt, tremendous to know. In anticipation you can remember when you take the Sacrament next time. It far exceeds what follows in the rest of D&C 93.]
Most of what we have on the Infinite aspects of the atonement successfully undertaken and experienced by Jesus Christ is found in MARK, some more in LUKE, and additional details in MATHEW. Only the first two of these provide the Greek words nearest to what is considered the original texts, they are the most worthwhile to study. MATHEW is a different style of Handbook, but is included because it does contribute a great deal.
When, in those serene moments we are renewing covenants with the Father, we can think if any or all of the above to REMEMBER HIM.
On a more personal and intimate basis, in a revelation given through Joseph Smith, at Manchester, New York, March 1830 Joseph received the following: "Therefore I command you to repent-repent, lest I smite you by the rod of my mouth, and by my wrath, and by my anger, and your sufferings be sore-how sore you know not, how exquisite you know not, yea, how hard to bear you know not. FOR BEHOLD, I, GOD, HAVE SUFFERED THESE THINGS FOR ALL, THAT THEY MIGHT NOT SUFFER IF THEY WOULD REPENT. BUT IF THEY WOULD NOT REPENT THEY MUST SUFFER EVEN AS I; WHICH SUFFERING CAUSED MYSELF, EVEN GOD, THE GREATEST OF ALL, TO TREMBLE BECAUSE OF PAIN AND TO BLEED AT EVERY PORE, AND TO SUFFER BOTH BODY AND SPIRIT-AND WOULD THAT I MIGHT NOT DRINK THE BITTER CUP, AND SHRINK- NEVERTHELESS, GLORY BE TO THE FATHER, AND I PARTOOK and FINISHED MY PREPARATIONS unto the children of men...I AM JESUS CHRIST, I CAME BY THE WILL OF THE FATHER, AND I DO HIS WILL." (D&C 19:16-24) [Simply put, if you don't repent this is what you can expect! Here he confirms that he suffered both BODY and SPIRIT and actually bled, his blood dripping to the ground. For a moment he had even given consideration to shrinking from this ordeal, how would that have affected the ATONEMENT? ] "...the wisdom and the love...sent the Savior from above, To suffer, Bleed, and die! His precious blood he freely spilt; His life he freely gave..." (Hymn 195)
Something very essential for the ATONEMENT had been accomplished in those four or five hours Jesus had spent at that PLACE, in that GARDEN, in GETHSEMANE. Less than ten hours later he would say to the Father that it "was finished" and perish on the cross. But that is another story. ] There he would "SAY IN A LOUD VOICE 'FATHER , IT IS FINISHED, THY WILL IS DONE.' (JST Mathew 27:54; Ogden p. 658) [The FATHER turned and wept, both for the suffering imposed on his beloved and only begotten son, and because the ATONEMENT was now an accomplished certainty for all time. It was over with, for all worlds it was accomplished, the will of the father had been done!] Joseph Smith wrote: "He's the SAVIOR and Only Begotten of God; By HIM, OF HIM, AND THROUGH HIM, the WORLDS WERE ALL MADE, Even ALL THAT CAREEEN IN THE HEAVENS so broad. Whose INHABITANTS TOO, from the FIRST TO THE LAST, Are SAVED by the very same SAVIOR OF OURS." (McConkie p. 66) The ATONEMENT IS INFINITE AND ETERNAL, CHRIST HAD PAID THE RANSOM , demanded by a broken law. (Job 33:24) and by being INFINITE, IT APPLIES TO AN INFINITE NUMBER OF EARTHS, all ever created or to be created. (McConkie . 65)
Now he SAID : "Father, behold the SUFFERINGS and DEATH of HIM who did no sin, in whom THOU was well pleased; behold the BLOOD OF THY SON WHICH WAS SHED, THE BLOOD OF HIM WHO THOU SAVEST THAT THYSELF MIGHT BE GLORIFIED...SPARE these my brethren that believe on my name, that they may come unto me and have EVERLASTING LIFE" (D&C 45:3-5) "I pray that we will live in constant REMEMBRANCE of that love in ALL ITS EXPRESSIONS. " (Christofferson p. 6)
''Enoch cried unto the Lord ...When shall the day of the Lord Come? When shall the BLOOD of the RIGHTEOUS BE SHED, that all they that mourn may be sanctified and have eternal life... and the Lord said unto Enoch, Look; and he looked and beheld the SON OF MAN lifted up on the CROSS, and after the manner of men...the heavens were veiled...all the creations of God mourned...(Moses 7:45-49) "... the earth GROANED; and the rocks were rent; and the Saints arose, and were crowned ...with CROWNS OF GLORY..." (Moses 7:54-61;Taylor p. 78) It was all accomplished nearly two thousand years ago. Because his BLOOD was shed, and his BODY laid down, you just might just get one of those crowns!
"...Ye are sanctified in Christ by the grace of God, through the SHEDDING of the BLOOD of CHRIST, which is in the COVENANT of the FATHER, unto the remission of your sins..."(Bednor p. 4; Moroni 10:32-33) The sacramental covenants are MADE with the FATHER. "The depth and intensity of the Father's love for each of His children is evidenced in HIS willingness to ALLOW His ONLY Begotten Son to offer the INFINITE and ETERNAL ATONING SACRIFICE." (Bednor p. 5; Alma 10, 14)
When one takes that little piece of bread and drinks that little cup of water, recall ALL or SOME of the above to REMEMBER HIM, it will permit one to comply faithfully with the terms of the SACRAMENTAL PRAYERS.
ANDERSEN, Todd G., The Gospels Made Whole, King James Version, one Complete Story of Jesus Christ, with Later-day Scriptures, Best Books Publishing, Provo, Utah, 1986
BEDNAR, David A., Power to Become, Deseret Book , Salt Lake City, Utah 2014
BRATCHER , Robert G., Eugene A. Nida, A Translator's Handbook on The Gospel of Mark, United Bible Societies, E. J., Brill, Leiden, 1961
CLARK, J. Ruben, Jr., Our Lord of the Gospels, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, 1954
CHRISTOFERSON, D., Todd, To Always Remember Him, Ensign, Salt Lake City, Feb., 2014
LUDLOW, Daniel H., A Companion to your Study of the New Testament, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1982
MADSEN, Truman G., Eternal Man, Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, Utah 1970
MADSEN, Truman G., The Sacrament, Feasting at the Lord's Table, Amalphi Publishing,Provo, Utah, 2008
MCCONKIE, Bruce R., Mormon Doctrine, Bookcraft, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1966
NEWMAN, Barclay M., & Philip C. Stine, Translator's Handbook on the Gospel of Matthew, United Bible Societies, E.J. Brill, Leiden1959
NEWMAN, Barclay M., & Eugene A. Nida, A Translator's Handbook on The Gospel of John,United Bible Societies, New York, 1980
OGDEN, D. Kelly, & Andrew C. Skinner, Verse by verse, The Four Gospels, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah 2006
REILING, J., & J. L., Swellingrebel, The Translator's Handbook on The Gospel of Luke, United Bible Societies, E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1971
ROBERTS, B. H., The Seventy's Course in Theology, 4th year, The Atonement, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah 1911
SMITH, Joseph, The New Testament, Inspired Version, Herald Publishing House, Independence, Missouri, 1960
TAYLOR, John, The Mediation and Atonement, Stevens & Wallis, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah With Concordance, 1950, 1882