Dr. Einar C. Erickson
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Listen that I may reveal to you the prodigious mystery concerning the great King who must come into the world at the end of times, at the moment of dissolutions which will put and end of them, a child will be conceived and born with its members in the womb of a virgin, without any man having approach her.

THE BOOK OF MORMON AND THE AKKADIAN DICTIONARY

AKKADIAN PART 39

SARAH TO SENUM

INTRODUCTION

Consider how many “Jaredite names we have” says Hugh Nibley, “it seems that we have here a definite overlapping of the two cultures. [Nephite-Jaredite] What clinches the matter is the fact that our Nephite and Jaredite names all have Mulekite backgrounds and connections. [Remember that the Mulekites found the last survivor of the Jaredite battles] That the Mulekite-Jaredite  background represented a definite cultural tradition among the Nephites and was consciously cultivated is, I believe, very clearly shown in the behavior of men with Jaredite names. Five out of six whose names are definitely Jaredite  betray a strong anti-Nephite leaning, and the sixth one Shiblom, was only saved from the ranks of such rebels because an angel converted his anti-Nephite father. ....King Noah, perhaps of mixed Mulekite descent, horrified the Nephites by introducing the ways of the old Jaredite king -oppressive taxation, whoredoms, and abominations, elegant and spacious buildings.”  As we continue to work on the names Nibley’s idea of overlapping seems to true. (Nibley, Vol. 5, p. 245) There are many more Jaredite names to deal with before this exercise is done, we will be coming back to the theme of overlapping again.

SARAH

SARAH was the principal  wife of the ancient Patriarch Abraham. She is referred to only once in the Book of Mormon in a passage quoted from the prophet Isaiah.      “ Look  unto Abraham, your father, and unto Sarah she that bare you for I called him alone and blessed him.” (2 Ne. 8:2) She was born in Ur of the Chaldeans. Her original name was Sarai (Genesis 11:29-30) but the Lord changed the names of both her (to Sarah) and Abram (to Abraham), in  Genesis 17:15.  Sarai, which means “ Princess” in  Hebrew, by  having the abbreviation of Jehovah (H) as the ending of the name, SARAH, changed the meaning to “Princess of Jehovah.” (Buttrick p. 219) The name Sarai is an old Semitic  feminine  form first mentioned in Gen. 11:29-30 as Abraham’s wife and she is childless. She  is also mentioned as the half sister (Gen. 20;12) of Abraham. The sin was not in claiming her as his sister, the intent was to deceive. SARAH and ABRAHAM  had the same father, but different mothers. The Mosaic law prohibiting close marriages was still nearly 800 years in the future.  The name changes in Gen. 17:5-13  suggests this was the work of a later compiler or  writer since all subsequent occurrences of the names were made to conform to this change. (Buttrick  p.  219)  Sarai’s name change to Sarah was when she was 90 years old. The Lord also blessed her and told her “she would bear a son, and become the mother of many nations.“  (Gen. 17; Douglas p. 1393) When she laughed at the idea, she was admonished:  “Is anything too hard for the Lord?” I Think all are aware of the story of Hagar and Sarah’s jealousy and the birth of Ishmael with angelic intervention (Gen. 16:14; Gen. 21;  Douglas p. 1392)

After ten years in Harran, (Avigad p. 48) they were directed by the Lord to go to the land of Canaan, but a vast famine redirected their journey to Egypt. Abraham instructed Sarah: “This is the kindness you do me, at every place to which we come, say of me He is my brother.” (Gen. 20:13) Abraham, justifiably, feared that her outstanding beauty would endanger his life. (Douglas p. 1392) A dead sea scroll  explains the story of Sarai and the king of Egypt in a manner different from that of all the midrashim on the subject. The scroll contains “praises of Sarai’s beauty…and stresses her wisdom.” (Avigad p. 23) Sure enough, posing as his sister in Egypt, Pharaoh was attracted to her and he took her into his harem. Difficulties arose, man and animals became sterile, he suspected the truth, and husband and wife were sent away. (Gen. 12) From the combined stories we see that there were more than one sojourn into Egypt, and durations there are varied as are the episodes between Abraham and Pharoah. The episode where Sarai was torn from Abraham they had been in Egypt five years. (Avigad p. 24)  Another time Abraham is in the courts of Pharaoh and the ruler is eager to be taught astronomy. (Nibley 1981, p. 114) Facsimile No. 3 in the Book of Abraham, in the Pearl of Great Price describes just such teaching activities. (Ibid  pp. 116-117) There is lots of room for research in this area of Abrahamic studies, we don’t know all of Abraham’s wanderings or how many times he went to Egypt or where he spent his time when he did. (Aharoni pp. 43-44)

Another recorded occasion was at the court of Abimelech, king of Gerar, where she was taken to be added to the king’s wives. But the king was divinely warned not to touch her. Abraham and the king worked out a deal so his family could  live and be buried in the kingdom, Abraham accumulated appreciable wealth taking gifts from those who wanted Sarah, as compensation for an injured husband. (Gen. 24; Douglas p. 1392) Once his life was threatened “when he made the most dangerous journey of his life, into Egypt, he was rescued by Sarah who was in the form of a palm tree.” (Nibley p. 287) It is an interesting story.

Sarah’s barrenness was a constant reproach. She finally gave her handmade, the Egyptian Hagar, a gift from a Pharaoh at their departures from one of those trips, to her husband as a concubine, a gesture that was Called the LAW OF SARAH. “And why did she do that?  Because this was the Law; The LAW OF SARAH  is that a first wife once she is taught the law, is to agree to a second wife…if she refuses… her husband is exempt from the law and can receive whomever the Lord will give unto him” (D&C 132: 65-66; Largey p. 190)  “and from Hagar sprang many people…fulfilling, among other things, the promises.” (D&C 132:34) But the promised son was Isaac. Like Abraham, he was father of the nations. He is  mentioned 13 times in the Book of Mormon, in connection with the covenant promises of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. (Jacob 4.5; Largey p. 68)

Sarah  is named in Is. 51:2 as an example of trust in Yehweh. In the NT Paul mentions both  Abraham and Sarah among those whose faith was counted for righteousness,  (Rom. 4:19), and he writes of Sarah as the mother of the children of  Promise. (Rom. 9:9) The writer  of the Epistle to the Hebrews  includes Sarah in the list of the faithful. (11:11) She is named also as an example of a wife’s proper regard for her husband.”  (l Peter  3:6; Douglas p. 1393)   

Sarah died in Kiriatharba when she was 127 years old and was buried at Machpelah (near Hebron) She is our ancestress,  she has been resurrected and is now a Queen and a High Priestess, glorified and exalted with Abraham, forever. (D&C 132:37)  Soon after Abraham took another wife, Keturah, who was with him  for nearly 35 years. She bore him six sons (Gen. 25:1-6: Buttrick p. 8), some very important, such as Midian, whose daughter married Moses. Abraham lived to 175.   

SARIAH

SARIAH was the wife of the prophet LEHI. Nephi described both his mother and father with a single word: “goodly.” (1 Ne. 1:1) She was the mother of six sons and two daughters. (I Ne. 2:5; 18:7; 2 Ne. 5.6;  Pinegar p. 164)

“SARIAH (S‘eyh in Hebrew) appears frequently in the BIBLE  as a  male name, transliterated Seraiah (2 Samuel 8:17; 2 Kings 25:23; Chronicles  1:13;14, 35). No where does it appear, as it does in the Book of Mormon as a female name (Lehi’s wife). But in a series of discoveries commencing at the turn of the twentieth century  , the word was found as a women’s name on a fifth –century D.C. papyrus from Elephantine, Egypt, and on a number of seals and bullae (seal impressions) from Israel of Lehi’s own day.” (Givins p. 140; also  see my CD on the Elephantine Archives). Elephantine was an Island in the upper Nile River where a contingent of Jewish mercenaries, about 585 B.C. who had a temple there, were serving Pharaoh  guarding the upper Nile area from encroachment  by Nubian invaders. (Whitehouse p. 159) During the Babylonian invasions, 600-585 B.C. The Babylonians had appointed Gedaliah governor of Judah, many Judeans gathered to him. Ishmael of the royal house was incited to kill Gedaliah, which he did In October 586 B.C.  Fearing reprisals from the Babylonians, he and some followers fled to Egypt. They settled first at Tahpanes where some apostates among them worshipped Baal-zephon, so Ishmael and his group entered service with the Egyptians as mercenaries. Their only attested colony was at YEB, which was ELEPHANTINE, up the Nile River on the Nubian border. (Aharoni  p. 164) There they built a temple. Their recovered archives contain many Book of Mormon names that have been discussed in this series.  Did Lehi know this group since they carried with them the same name the wife of Lehi had? This is another of those tiny insertions in the Book of Mormon that confirm it is an authentic document. Otherwise, where did Joseph get the name?  (Ibid, with map)

Saraias is the KJV Apocryphal form of Seraiah. (Buttrick p. 220) All of the forms of the name, except SERAI, by which SARA was first known, (Mendel p. 461), have the SAME consonantal elements SRH, meaning (princess of Jehovah) (female form) or (Prince of Jehovah, or Jehovah is my Prince), (male form). The male form, SERAIAH (also meaning Jehovah is Prince), is the name of twelve men, (Mandel pp. 476-477), mentioned in the Old Testament, identified, listed and discussed. (Lockyer pp. 296-297) The meaning of the name for them is “God has prevailed.”

 

“According to George Reynolds and Janne Gjodahl…Seriah is…a compound of two Hebrew  words; “Sarah-iah’ meaning literally “Princess of the Lord”  (In their Commentary  on the Book of Mormon),”  and a suffix of JAH, the abbreviation for GOD, frequently found in names of the Old Testament, as in ISAIAH. (Ludlow p, 92)  

SARIAH is the matriarch of the Nephite and Lamanite civilizations.  She and her family of four sons and two daughters, (1Ne. 2:5; 18:7; 2Ne. 5:6), resided in Jerusalem. Lehi, her husband had many contacts in the region and was a very successful merchant, accumulating great wealth and gaining the favor of God who called him to be a prophet. (Brown pp.41-43) When his life was threatened the Lord directed him to leave and he would be guided to a new land. (Brown pp. 43-44; 1 Ne. 2:2) SARIAH faced many challenges, eight years in the wilderness, (Potter pp.53-65; Aston pp. 4-13), the birth of two more sons, she was getting older and weary. When Lehi sent his sons to retrieve the Brass Plates and their return was long overdue she imagined that they had perished. (1 Ne. 5:2).  Blaming her husband for sending them off to die grieved her, and all his assurances could not allay her concerns. Only after their safe return could she speak with conviction, again, of Lehi’s prophetic calling. (1 Ne. 5:7-8) During the great revelatory vision of the Tree of Life Lehi had, he  saw that his wife, Nephi and Sam all go to and partake of the tree of life,  “which was desirable above all other fruit." (1 Ne. 8:15) In the vision Sariah, Nephi and Sam were undecided where to go, but upon seeing Lehi beckon to them they readily followed him and partook of the fruit of the tree. (1 Ne. 8:15; Sperry p. 112) During the long ocean voyage Lehi and Sariah were tormented by Laman and Lemuel to nearly the point of death and they feared being cast into a watery grave. (1 Ne. 18:14-18; Pinegar pp. 164-165) With great relief they finally reached the promised land. Where and when she died is not in the record. (Largey p. 701) Those details may have been in the lost 116 pages which were Lehi’s History and Account.

In 1958 Dr. M, Wells Jakeman. Published Special Publication No, 2  on STELA NO. 5 izapa, that had been found in the ruins of izapa, Chiapas, Mexico,  along with more than 60 other carved Stela, and a DETAILED COMMENTARY ON THE CARVING. (Jakeman, Front piece No. 2 & 4) He had identified a number of name glyphs on the carving, one of which was clearly one for SARIAH. A copy of the Stela is included in this entry.  He made latex casts of the stela and several linen copies. I was one of his students and was privileged to get one of the copies, which I have used in lectures I have given on the carving. A great deal more has been found confirming the tree of life carving depicting the family of Lehi around the tree. On page 37 of his commentary he provides a copy of the name glyph for SARIAH, compared with an Egyptian Horned and Feathered crown, copy of which is also included in this entry.        

5AUL

In the Bible there are five men with the name of SAUL:  There was SAUL of Rahoboth by the River, the king of Idom. (Gen. 36:37)

There was SAUL, son of Shimeon and a Canaanite woman, one of the grandsons of Jacab, He immigrated to Egypt with seventy other Israelites. He was the ancestor of the clan of the Saulites in the 17 century B.C.  (Mandel p. 464: Gen. 46:10)

There was Saul of the Samuel the Prophet account in 1 Samuel 9:2) the first king of Israel, His story is one of a great tragedy.  

And there was SAUL son of UZZIAH, a descendant of Kehath, one of the three sons of Levi. (1 Chronicles 6:9)    

Then there was the zealous Jewish prosecutor,  which took a vision of Christ to covert, and who became one of the greatest Christians of all. You know about him, his name was changed to PAUL

SAUL the first king of Israel, was discussed under SAMUEL in this series, had lost favor with God and in desperation had gone to the Witch of Endor to conjure up the spirit of Samuel that he might get advice during at great battle of the Israelites against the Philistines.

“The Ghost  [spirit] of Samuel asked, “Why have you disturbed me and brought me up?” Saul answered, “I am in great trouble. The Philistines are making war against me. God is no longer with me and does not answer, either by prophets or in dreams. That is why I called you up. I need you to tell me what I must do. Why do you ask me, seeing that God has left you and become your enemy?“ God has taken the kingdom from you and given it to David, because you did not obey him, and did not carry out his wrathful commands against the Amalekites. The Lord will deliver you and all of Israel to the hands of the Philistines, and tomorrow, you and your sons will be with me.” Saul, terrified by the words of the ghost, and weak, because he had not eaten anything during the last twenty-four hours, flung himself to the ground.

The battle took place the next day in the slopes  of Mount Gilboa. The Philistines crushed the Israelites and killed many of them, including the sons of Saul, Johnathan, Ahinadab  and Malchishua.

I have visited the Mount and lectured there, and contemplated the lessons to be learned of this event.

Saul badly wounded by an arrow begged his arms bearer, “Draw your sword and kill me, so that these uncircumcised may not mock me and kill me.“ The young man was too terrified to do it. Saul took his own sword and threw himself on it.  When the arms bearer saw that Saul was dead he also killed himself with his sword.  (Mandel pp. 464-475)

When the population learned of the defeat and death of Saul they fled and the Philistines occupied the towns.  The next day the Philistines came to strip the corpses and found the bodies of Saul and his three sons lying on Mount Gilboa. They cut off his head and took off his armor and they sent them throughout the land to spread the news among their people. Then they put his armor in the temple of Astaroth and nailed his body to the wall of Beth-Shean, (Mandel pp. 464-475; Aharoni pp. 87-90)  Brave men from Jabesh marched during the night and recovered the bodies  and brought them to Jabesh—Gilead. They burned them and buried  the remains under a tree and then they fasted seven days. Jonathan and Saul were mourned by David in a beautiful elegy.  Years later king David took the bones of Saul and Jonathan from Jabesh-Gilead and he had them buried in the country of Benjamin in Zeleh in the sepulcher  of Kish, Saul’s father.  (Mandel pp. 474-475)

In Hebrew, the meaning of the name SAUL is “asked.” (Mandel p. 464)

 

SEANTUM  

SEANTUM was a member of the Gadiantons.  He was also the brother of SEEZO-
RAM, chief judge at the time of the ministry of Nephi, son of Helaman about 23-20 BC. Nephi had just returned to Zarahemla from a journey to the north where his preaching was rejected by the people. He was pouring out his soul before the Lord when the citizenry overheard his heartfelt lament coming down to them from his garden tower.  When the corrupt judges and lawyers challenged his teachings, Nephi preached repentance to them in the power of the Lord, saying  that the day of judgement was even at the doors. Then he made an astounding disclosure.

“Yea, go ye in unto the judgment seat, and search and behold your judge is murdered, and he lieth in his blood, and he had been murdered by his brother,  who seeketh to sit in the judgment-seat.  And behold they both belong to your secret band whose author is Gadianton and the evil one who seeketh to destroy the souls of men.”  (Hel.  8:27-28) The corrupt judges, members themselves of the Gadianton order, accused Nephi of conspiracy in the crime. (Hel. 9:16; Pinegar pp. 166-167) Nephi instructed his accusers to go to the house of Seezoram and inquire concerning the murder. He prophesied that Seantum would first proclaim his innocence but eventually confess the crime after those sent to investigate would find blood on his cloak and fear in his countenance. (Hel. 9:25-37; Largey p. 708)

It was quickly confirmed that Seezoram had indeed been murdered. (Hel. 9:3) and that the perpetrator was none other than Seantum, his brother. (Hel. 9:26. 37-38)

Some on that occasion were persuaded of the truth of Nephi’s testimony of the gospel, claiming that “he has told us things, and even he has brought unto our knowledge the true murderer of our chief judge.”  (Hel. 9:41)

The name SEANTUM is made up of the prefix  “Sean-” and the suffix –‘tum’ which  has  been discussed previously in names ending with the “ m’, um, lum or tum,” we are dealing with  a language, such as Akkadian or ancient its predecessor, ancient Sumerian, in what has been called “Mimation,” which  ceased being used about 1800 BC, the usage of “N” as an ending,  Nunation took its place. Bezalel Porton suggests that the –um  ending, a common West Semitic suffix, is a hypocoristicon for Jehovah names, fourteen names in the Book of Mormon contain this ending. (Bezalel 139-140) The –um ending was also a prevalent hypocoristic suffix among the Mari texts,  a city kingdom,  contemporary with the Jaredites. (Huffmon  p. 132) The Nephites did not know this and when the Book of Ether was available and other translated materials of the Jaredites, many names with mimation were taken over by the Nephites and others. Jaredite proper names have a peculiar ring of their own. [as has been pointed out from time to time], their most characteristic feature is the use of ending names with an ‘-m’… as noted, called mimation and actually is found among the most ancient languages of the Near East, [such as  Sumerian. Akkadian. Assyrian. Eblaitic,  Amoritic and at  Mari], where it was followed by later nunation. (Nibley Vol. 5,  p. 242) In fact, looking at the glossary of names, at the end of the Book of Mormon, these endings stand out and absolutely recommends that one go to the ancient west Semitic  Mesopotamian languages to search for  Book of Mormon parallels,  particularly the Jaredite names. So there was no mystery of where to start looking for names confirming the Book of Mormon was an authentic text.  

One useful source is the Garsana Archives, from the Third Dynasty of ancient UR, where Abraham was born, in multiple volumes. In vol.  4 we find “tum” which is  given to mean “to bring.” (Kleinerman p. 217) To bring what?  The consonants ‘SN’ suggest the Moon or a plant God, the consonant ‘S’ with the vowels ‘EA’  suggest something to do with barley which is a sacred and important plant with many forms of worshipping ceremonies and festivals. The element ‘SEN’ is  used in words that identify barley for bread.  (Kleinerman pp. 182-185) So the meaning is most likely that the possessor of the name is honored to bring a certain sacred form of Barley, in bread, for a ceremony to the God. They are still working on dictionaries and commentaries, so further data may throw light on this name.     

SEBUS

The waters of SEBUS, a water area in the land of Ishmael which was in the greater land of Nephi, (Allen p. 646) where Lamanites watered their flocks (Alma 17:26). King Lamoni had previously executed shepherds who had lost their flocks to Lamanite marauders there.  (Alma 26:28 about 90 BC).  When troublemakers again scattered Lamoni’s flocks, AMMON , a son of the Nephite king Mosiah, alone  on a mission  to the Lamanites,  had become a servant to King Lamoni, encouraged his fellow shepherds to retrieve the flocks to avoid the king’s punishment. The animals were returned to “the place of water”, but the marauders returned again to scatter the flocks. Ammon routed and killed a few of them single handed and the servants returned with the arms of those he defeated as evidence. (Alma 17:27-29; 39:19-21) The event helped convert king Lamoni.

The ‘proposed’ waters of Sebus are located in the department of Chimaltenango, Guatemala, near the town of Patzicia where the headquarters of a stake of the Church is located embracing the local villages. The members are Mayan of the ancient Cakchiquel Maya. (Allen p. 647).

It may be that the Lamanites renamed the waters Sebus, or Mormon edited it that way, because it seems in Old Akkadian it means ‘to break up, resistance, contravene, injure.’(Black . 364)  On the tablets from Ebla, we find the word Sebu, (Pagan 367) meaning ‘predator’ it may apply because  of what happened there.

SEEZORAM

SEEZORAM was the chief judge who, at the time of the ministry of Nephi, son of Helaman, was murdered by his brother SEANTUM. Through inspiration, when Nephi  himself was accused of confederacy in the deed,  Nephi publically disclosed the essential facts of the murder and thereby silenced his detractors among the corrupt judges and lawyers of the Gadianton order of his day, about 20-26 BC.  (Hel. 8 and 9; Pinegar p. 167; Largey p. 713))

Nibly  wrote: “Another Book of Mormon judge, CEZORAM, has a name that suggests that of an Egyptian governor of a Syrian city: Chi-zi-ri. He also notes the comparison of ZOSER and  0..00 , of the  Old World, Egypt, the Third Dynasty ruler, one of the greatest Pharaohs, with the suffix of Seezor-  -am.”  (Nibley pp. 22-28)

The elements in SEEZORAM include:  “SEE, SEZ, ZOR,  ZORM, RAM,’  Names found in the Garsana archives from the Third Dynasty of UR (Ur 111),include ‘SIZ,’as  in  SIZKUR,  used to refer to ‘ceremonial offering, sacrifice,  libation.’ (Klienerman p. ix, and pp. 170-171 ) Zorm and Ram are mimation forms like –‘tum’ and used  to mean ‘to bring.’ The similarity and usage of “-TUM, -AM, RAM, and – M“  is discussed briefly by Huehnergard p. 99., in use  during Jaredite times and before.

It seems that the parents of these two brothers were worshipers of false gods and selected two names, though somewhat different in form, but in the essential elements that make up the name they are nearly the same. Both brothers were members if the Gadiantons and anti-Christs, and came to no good end.

SENINE

King Mosiah’s Monetary  System set out in Alma 11:1-19 of weights and measures established equivalents between amounts of silver, gold and grain.(See Chart)  It is similar to, but not based on the Egyptian system. The systems in use during the time of the Book of Mormon are noted in various charts. (Welch p. 108-113; Largey p. 607) The system was not based on the old world or Jewish systems, and was altered from time to time on the basis  of the “circumstances and minds of the people”  The Nephites  had probably set up a system in the beginning and modified it for the next 550 years.  Likely the systems was based on the size and weight of the pieces of gold and silver they used, and the availability of the precious metals. (Largey p. 607)

The gold  Senine was the same value as the silver Senoum. So the weight had to be different.  Either one would acquire one measure of grain.  Forty two pieces of either one  would be the value of the bribe which was 42 measures.   

 

SENUM

The Senum was the weight of a silver piece equal in value to the senine, both pieces could purchase a single measure of grain. (See  chart) Another chart showing another interpretation of the system is provided by the Welches. (Welch p, 110; Smith 1983)  Nibly points out that “the Nephite weights and measures bear jaredite names indicates long cultural overlap.” (Nibley Vol. 5, p. 146)  Evidence that perhaps there were more contacts between the various peoples that occupied the promised land, though in the editing, Mormon did not try to make this point.

                     



BIBLIOGRAPHY

ALLEN, L. Joseph, & Blake J. Allen, Exploring the Lands of the Book of Mormon, Covenant Communications, American Fork, Utah, 2011

AVIGAD, Nahman & Yagael Yadin, A Genesis Apocryphon, The Magnes Press of the Hebrew University, & Heikal Ha-Sefer, Jerusalem, 1956

AHARONI, Yohanan. Anson E. Rainey, Michael Avi-Yonah,  Ze’ev Safrai, The Carta Bible Atlas, Carta, Jerusalem, 2002  

ASTON, Warren P. & Michaela Knoth Aston, In the Footsteps of Lehi, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake  City, 2004

BLACK, Jeremy, Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate, A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, HARRASSOWITZ  Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2000

BROWN, S, Kent & Peter Johnson, Journey of Faith, The Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, BYU, Provo, Utah, 2006

DOUGLAS, I. D., Ed., The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Part 3, Inter-varsity Press, Tyndale  House Publishers, Hodder and Stoughton, Sidney, 1980

GIVENS, Terrey L. By the Hand of Mormon, Oxford University Press, N.Y., 2002

HUFFMON, Herbert, Amorite Persona Names In the Mari Texts, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965

HUEHNEGARD,  John, The Akkadian of Ugarit, Scholars Press, Atlanta, Georgia 1989

JAKEMAN, M. Wells, The complex “Tree of- Life Carving On Izapa Stela 5, Brigham Young University, Mesoamerican Series No. 4, Provo, UTAH, 1958

KLEINERMAN,L Alexandera, & David Owen, Analytical Concordance to the Garsana Archives, CDL Press, Bethesda, Maryland. 2009

LARGEY, Dennis L., & Larry E. Dahl, Doctrine and Covenant Reference Companion, Deseret Book Co., Salt Laker City, Utah. 2012

LOCKYER, Herbert, All the Men of the Bible, Zondervan Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Mic., 1958

LUDLOW, Daniel H., A Companion to your Study of the Book of Mormon, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City. 1976

MENDEL, David, Who’s Who in the Tenakh, Aerial Books, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2014

NIBLEY, Hugh, Edit.,  JOHN Gee & Michael D. Rhodes, The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, and Egyptian Endowment, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. & FARMS, BYU.  Provo, Utah. 2005

…………………., Abraham in Egypt, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1981

…………………, Vol. 5,  Lehi In the Deseret, The World of the Jaredites, There were Jaredites, FARMS BYU, Deseret Book Store. Salt Lake City, Utah, 1988

PAGAN,  Joseph Martin,  ARES 111,  Morphological and Lexical Study of Personal Names in the EBLA Texts, Missione Archelogica Italiana in Siria, Roma, 1998

PINEGAR, Ed., J., & Richard Allen. Book of Mormon Who’s Who, Covenant Communications, American Fork, Utah. 2007

POTTER, George & Richard Wellington, Lehi in the Wilderness, Cedar Fork. Springville. Utah, 2001,

PORTEN, Bezalel, Archives From Elephantine, University of California, Berkeley, 1968

Smith, Robert E., Weights and Measures in the time of Mosiah II, FARMS BYU, Provo. Utah. 1983)

WELCH, John W.  & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon, FARMS, BYU, Provo, Utah, 1999





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