Dr. Einar C. Erickson
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I am still a spirit, I have not been tabernacled in the flesh.

BOOK OF MORMON NAMES FOUND ON CLAY TABLETS and THE AKKADIAN DICTIONARY

RAMEUMPTUM TO SAMUEL

INTRODUCTION

Of the names listed in the  Book of Mormon glossary  only names of four letters remain:  S, T, U and Z,  to be discussed. Of the names in the glossary there are more names starting with ‘S’  then those starting with A,  j and M.  As pointed out earlier in this series, you would only have to change or add or delete a few letters, and you have an entirely different language.  In the glossary there are no names that being with an F, a prevalent initial letter in English. The substitution of ph for F  is peculiar to Egyptian names, this even carries over into English: rough, enough, tough etc., when hunting for a name  in Egyptian that might start with an L,   we need to hunt for parallels under R names.  As to  where to start?  The Book of Mormon helps by making the Hebrew-Egyptian connection, it is written in reformed Egyptian. The Book of Ether has many unique names, about 44 in just the first two chapters, dating the Jaredites into the period of time at or before the Tower of Babel, certainly,  before 2250 BC when certain ancient cities were destroyed. This naturally suggests looking for a language and geographical areas before that time to research. Ancient Akkadian, the dominant language right after and before the destruction of EBLA, was a good place to start. Geographically, in the world, the preferred areas to look for names on recovered clay tablets with Book of Mormon names on them would be cities and ruins in the Mesopotamian and Egyptian regions.  In the middle of the last century, Nibley and others found this to be true. It is even more so now than then.

Some names in the glossary are taken from quotes of passages from the Old Testament, such as Isaiah.These are treated lightly because there are many sources available for a comprehensive study of any biblical names, but I have provided references of some of the more useful sources because of their detail and clarity, if one wanted to go into the subject matter more deeply.

RAMEUMPTOM

This  is the name given to the special holy stand of the apostate Zoramites upon which they stood when they offered their weekly prayer. The Zoramites were descendants of Zoram, servant of Laban who joined Lehi on the journey to the promised land. He married the eldest daughter of Ishmael.   A group of them had become extreme apostates at about this time. (I Nephi 16:7; Pinegar p. 201)

The name looks and sounds strange in English, but it has appropriate Semitic roots. The prefix  “RAM-”  is  frequently used to indicate a high place.  Earlier we have referred to the “Hill” RAMAH, a high place. In the Ancient Akkadian we find RAMAMU(M),  with both the RAM- prefix and the ‘UM’ ending found in Jaredite names and meaning to ‘roar, growl,’ [to shout out], and RAMANU(M),  a structure where one could be alone and independent, (Black p. 297), “built in the center of the synagogue”…a place of standing “the top of thereof would admit only one person…stand on the top…and cry with a loud voice” repeating a specified prayer listing apostatic and false doctrines. (Alma 31:12: Pinegar p. 201))

The name  RAMEUMPTOM is interpreted as meaning “holy stand” (Alma 31:13) The Semitic root, RAM-,  means “high” or “holy place. (Largey p. 672)”

In modern Israel there is the important city of RAMALLAH, headquarters of the  Palestine Authority, located on top of the Judean hills just north of Jerusalem and the town  of RAMEEM, which literally means “the Heights,’’ Located on the top of the hills near the Lebanese border.  (Ludlow p. 213) In Hebrew the name RAMOTH means ‘Heights.’ 

RAMOTH was the son of Bani. After the time of ‘Ezra (about 550 BC) when the Levites were released from captivity in Persia,  the returning Levites could not officiate in any Levitical Priesthood ordinances  unless they divorced the foreign women they had taken as wives, so many of them dropped their wives, (Ezra 10:29, Mandel p. 435) in order to function in the Priesthood.

REMALIAH

REMALIAH was the father of PEKAH the Army Commander and usurper, (Buttrick p.32) discussed in PART 36 of this series.  PEKAH killed King Pekahiah of Israel and proclaimed himself King.  A few years later he himself was assassinated. (Mandel p. 441)

The name in Hebrew means “God has bedecked.” (Mandel p. 441) 

REZIN

The name in Hebrew means “delight.”  (Mandel pp. 444-445)

REZIN was king of Syria in the 8th century BC during the time of the Assyrian  expansion and conquests. About 738 BC he aligned himself with King Peka to stop Assyrian plans. When King Ahaz of Israel refused to join the alliance, they laid siege to Jerusalem but failed to take the city. The Assyrians attacked Damascus in about 732, captured it and executed Rezin. (2 Kings 11:23;  Also see 2 Nephi 17; Isaiah 7; Sperry pp. 197-199; these verses contain prophecies concerning the Virgin Mary and the Christ as Immanuel).  Under Tiglath-pileser,  Assyria annexed Aram-Damascus and much of Israel and deported many of its residents. (Gardner pp. 371-372)

The name REZIN was also the name of an ancestor of a clan of temple servants that returned with Zerubbubel from the Babylonian exile. (Ezra 2:48; Mandel p. 445)

RIPLAH

The prefix appears as RIP- in several Akkadian words, and in West Semitic and Amorite as ‘ RIPUTU,’ meaning “healing.” (Black p. 305) It is an ancient word and an exact match is found in Phoenician, RP where it means  “To Heal” (Benz p  410), and aspects of it are found in 1 Chr. 8:1; 26:7 and  Num. 13:9, 26:7.  It probably entered the Nephite language from the Mulekites.  RIPLAH is a place name for a hill that figured in the strategy Moroni used to capture a Lamanite army, (ALMA 43:31-32) The hill was near the River Sidon and the Land Manti. Moroni used the hill to conceal a part of his army, during a battle with the  Lamanites.  As the Lamanites passed the Hill Riplah, Moroni brought his men out from the hill’s south side and encircled the Lamanites.”  The victorious Moroni  compelled his foes to enter a covenant of peace, thus a place of healing. Perhaps Moroni even gave the name to the hill. (Alma 43:33-36; Largey p. 688) The name  has  an exact match in Phoenician. (Benz pp. 410-411) The Akkadian  means “to heal”, in Phoenician the meaning is “healing." Little finds like this one are really big ones because they confirm in an extraordinary way the book of Mormon is an authentic document. I almost gave up finding much on this name then it came all at once when I was prompted to check in the book by Benz. There the consonants RP- as the prefix gave a perfect  match.  The name may have actually meant  “A place of  healing.”

RIPLAKISH

In the Book of Ether he provided much of his own genealogical line in chapters  2, 3-10 and elsewhere for  himself.  In the chart compiled by Largey of 44 names  Riplakish is No. 25. ( Largey p.159) The suffix of the name -KISH, is found in other Jaredite names. KISH is discussed in other web site entries. There was a Kingdom of Kish, Kings of Kish, a family of Kish and a city of Kish. No wonder the Jaredites had an affinity for the name Kish, most likely this was the area where the Jaredites were living before they departed for elsewhere. At the time of their departure or shortly thereafter the languages of the peoples were confounded,   

The empires of the pre-Sargonic and Akkadian period, 2500 BC, were in place and The Akkadian Empire was spreading throughout northern Mesopotamia. The region  and the city of KISH, twelve miles east of Babylon was conquered.  The ancient city Ebla was conquered and destroyed by the grandson, Naram-sin, (2291-2255) of Sargon, king of the Akkadians in 2250 BC. (Saggs p.  415) At Jemdet Nasar1,  the Proto-Literate and Proto-Historic period, the approximate time of the Tower of Babel, located just west of Babylon, resulted in the confusion of tounges, or languages, which seems to have occurred about 2900 BC. (Saggs  p. 25) The Jaredites were long gone from the region. According to the Sumerian King Lists the first political power and Dynasty after the flood, was KISH. The city has been excavated down to virgin soil, the earliest occupation was in the Jemdet Nasar period 2900 BC. Kish was destroyed during the reign of Akka, the last king of the first dynasty. (Saggs pp. 28-29)  The dates are still a work in progress.  The Book of Mormon is not clear as to when the Jaredites arrived  in the New World, It seems to be earlier than most think.  Based on the above,  RIPLAH, the name,  probably means ”healed or healing at KISH.”

Note that the suffix ending in RIPLAH is –ah, a theophoric suffix representing   Jehovah, which could mean “Jehovah heals.”

Nibley notes that in ancient Babylonian the name  RIPLIKISH is interpreted as “lord of Lakish.” ( Nibly, 1952 Edition p. 260)

The father of RIPLIKISH was Shez, a “righteous man that did walk in the ways of the Lord.” But his son did not. He was born when his father was old. He became a man of whoredoms and wickedness, placing heavy burdens of taxes on his people to support his selfish extravagant excesses. ”And he did erect him an exceedingly beautiful throne and he did build many prisons, and whoso would not pay taxes he did cast into prison and he did cause that they should labor continually  for their support and whoso refused to labor he did  cause to be  put to death. Wherefore he did obtain all his fine work, yea, even his fine gold he did cause to be refined in prison and all manner of fine workmanship he did cause to be wrought in prison. And it came to pass that he did afflict the people with whoredoms and abominations. (Ether 10:6-7)

After forty-two years of such treatment, the people revolted, killed RIPLAKISH, and drove his descendants from the land (Ether 10:8). Eventually one of his  sons,  MORIANTON, rose in power and took the leadership of the country, easing the burdens of the people and reigning in justice for many years, though not in moral decency. (Pinegar pp. 159-160)

Nibley has pointed out a number ancient of Asiatic patterns and practices are present in the story of Riplakish. One is the fine elaborate and ornate thrones enclosed and elevated on pedestals and such, filled the king’s ego and need for assurance that such a fine throne assured him of longevity and power. Another was the obsession of having craftsman and artists attend  the rulers at all times creating many types of products. This Including conscription of nearly every class of people including other royalty and family, in this insatiable demand for treasures of every kind. (Ether 10:7-12)  Concubines and wives were the main item of expense and the main cause of financial ruin among the rulers of the steppes. Every king displayed his wealth and power, his splendor, by the number of his wives and concubines he had, each one of which had to possess a complete camp and/or court of her own. (Nibly pp. 205) Recall Solomon and his 1000 wives He lost his exaltation because one of them got him to build an idol on her porch and worship it with her. The magnificent RIPLAKISH “did build many mighty cities.” (Ether 0:23: 10:12) Mostly by slave labor as did the ancients. (Nibly pp. 205-211)

The name KISH is found as name No, 30 in Jared’s  family names compiled by Largey from the lists in Ether. (Largey p. 431; Saggs pp 24-29) Another case where the names were an exact match.

RIPLIANCUM

In the Book of Mormon the name RIPLIANCUM is a place name for the waters by which the Jaredite armies of CORIANTUMR and SHEZ pitched their tents  in preparation for further battle. The interpretation of meaning for the name is given in the Book of Mormon is as “large, or to exceed all.” (Ether 15:8) So it eas the larger of the bodies that were in the area. (Largey pp. 288-289)

 The peculiar ending of CORIANTUMR identifies the name is JaredIte. In  the original manuscript of the Book of  Mormon Oliver had the suffix spelled- MER, he had to cross it out and put in the  -UMR ending,  as Joseph Smith corrected him. So it was the larger of the bodies of water that were in the area. (Ibid)

Sorensen discusses the large area of water, called Ripliancum, forming a barrier to military movements farther northward from a point north of the cluster of hills near the east sea in the land northward. This Jaredite watery area evidently coincides with the complex of estuaries that receive the discharge from the Papaloapan  River system into the gulf of Mexico, the second wettest drainage area, which would block any flight northward of an armed force, in agreement with the account in the Jaredite text. Sorenson also discusses Lake Atitlan 35 miles west of Guatemala City and ruins of an old submerged city on the edge of the lake that can be identified as the “waters of Mormon,” that interesting enough, have submerged ruins  of a destroyed city on the south shore  of the lake,  called by archaeologists, Samabaj,  and dating 2000 years ago. (Mosiah 18:4-8, 30; Ether 15:8; Sorenson pp. 132-137). Right time, right place? Serious scientists are interested in the possibility that the physical phenomena described in the text of 3 Third Nephi  might be externally documented.  Sorenson’s book is not the only one reaching such conclusions and identifying how one will know and confirm such assertions.  (Sorenson p. 135)

SALEM

Melchizedek was king of a land and a city called  Peace. Salem in Hebrew means “peace,” which is traditionally equated with Jerusalem (Gen. 14:18; Heb, 7:1-2; Alma 13:17).  The People of Salem were extremely wicked, but responded to Melchezedek’s teaching and repenting of their abominations enough to be taken up to join the translated City of Enoch. (JST Gen. 14:32:14)

“And now MELCHIZEDEK was a priest of this order; therefore he obtained peace in Salem, and was called the Prince of peace, and his people wrought righteousness and obtained heaven, and sought for the city of Enoch which  God had before taken; separating it from the end of the world.” (Taylor p. 85)

How could a great high priest function in his priesthood  without tabernacle or Temple? Or how could a people establish righteousness  to be transferred from this telestial world without first having the blessings of a Temple where holy ordinances are performed? (Galbraith p. 30). The Great Joseph taught that the main object of gathering the people of God in any age of the world was to build unto the Lord a house whereby He could reveal unto his people the ordonnances of his house  and the glories of his Kingdom. (TJS p. 308)

Josephus wrote that “Melchizedek the Righteous KING, for such he really  was… the FIRST PRIEST of God and first to build a temple there. And called the city JerusaLem, which was formerly called Salem.” (Galbraith p. 30) “Abraham was acquainted with the sacred endowment and hence a temple or its equivalent in which they would be administered.”( Sperry ERA, p. 814) There are many legends and Jewish writings that  tell how Abraham was instructed in the laws governing the bread and wine, laws of the priesthood, blessings, consecrating, and being clothed with a garment such as prepared for Adam for his protection, by God in the Garden of Eden and clothing him with heavenly powers. (Galbraith p. 36)  We have very little about the interlude between the time after the flood and the time of Noah and his family and Abraham to Moses. In the promises there seems to an indication we will get access to those records in due time.  The ancients all  had the same ordinances that we have today and received them in the same places we do today. (Hunter p. 239) The new discoveries of old documents confirms that what we have today was had by the ancients.   

SAM

SAM left Jerusalem with Lehi and his family around 600 BC.  Nephi and Sam and their group separated themselves from Laman and Lemuel between approximately 588 and 570 BC. (Pinegar p. 152)

Nibley observed that a “large number of Egyptian names found among the Nephites were those of early Egyptian kings and heroes….royal and hero names in the Book of Mormon are Himni, Korihor, Paanchi, Pacumemi, SAM…” p. 101 Vol. 8.

SAM “is a perfectly good Egyptian name, it is also the normal form of SHEM. The son of Noah.” (NIBLEY, Vol 5, p. 42)

In the Akkadian dictionary the name is in the form SAMSU(M) with the meaning “SUN, SUN –GOD.” Gold is an emblem, in the form of a gold disc.  Such as in Egypt. (Black p. 354) Also an “epithet or designation of God,” or “Sky, heavens.” In the ancient New Assyrian Empire it was in the form of SAMSI. It was more prevalent then  at any other time and as meaning ‘the SUN  GOD’ in such  forms as  SAMSI-LABI,, ‘the sun god has given,’ also as SAMSI IADA  ‘the sun god has known;’ and  SAMSI DALA ‘the sun god  has saved.’  There are about twelve of these forms, the suffix changing, but the prefix stays the same; SAM always meaning “sun god, ” (Baker pp. 1081-1087) The prefix shows up In the Old Testament in such names as SAMSON, ‘Sun’s man,’ SAMUEL, “His name is God”. (Buttrick pp. 198-201) Etc.

In ancient Phoenician the consonants, SM have an exact match the ”Appellative of a diety….a hypocoristicon, [or abbreviation].” (Benz p. 419).   

SONS OF LEHI

SAM was the third  son of Lehi. Some have noticed that the Sons of Lehi are referred to as Lamanites, Lemuelites, Nephites, Jacobites, and Josephites, but no Samites are listed because Lehi’s promise to Sam was that his seed would be numbered with the seed of Nephi.  (2 Nephi 4:11; Ludlow p. 131)  Nephi testified of SAM’S character when he testified unto SAM of Lehi’s message from God: “And I spake unto Sam making known unto him the things which the Lord had manifested unto me by the Holy Spirit. And it came to pass that he believed in my words.” (1 NEPHI 2:17) Lehi, in hst vision of the Tree of Life,  saw Nephi and Sam partake of the fruit but the older brothers did not. (Sperry p. 112) Lehi in his final blessing warned them if they did not heed the voice of Nephi they would perish. In a final special blessing on SAM Lehi said “Blessed art thou and thy seed for thou  shalt inherit the land like into thy brother Nephi and thy seed shall be numbered with his seed…and thou shalt be blessed all of thy days.” (2 Nephi 4:11) When the older brothers rose up in rebellion to kill their younger siblings Nephi took the righteous members of Lehi’s family and separated them and those who went with him were those who believed in the warnings and revelations of God, ”wherefore they did hearken unto my words.” (2 Nephi 5:6) “….they were just and holy men.” (Alma 3:6) The first blessing Lehi gave his older sons went to SAM because they  had abdicated their rights  to the blessings. (Sperry p. 148) Nephi’s group were blessed and prospered because they “lived after the manner of happiness.” (2 Nephi 5:27; Pinegar pp. 161-162)

SAM married one of Ismael’s daughters (1 Nephi 16) and reared a family (1 Nephi 5:.6).  There is a beautiful parallel between SAM and Nephi and the prophet Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum; believing and faithful brothers. They were greatly blessed. (Largey p. 697).

SAMARIA                        

Samaria , the city,  was the ancient capital of the Ten Tribes. About 40 miles north of Jerusalem was the territory of SAMARIA an area 40 miles north-south and 35 miles east-west. It became the capital of Israel, or the ten tribes. The ten tribes had gradually became separated from Judah some 800 BC. Israel fell to the Assyrian forces when its capital Samaria capitulated to Sargon 11, in 721 BC.  (Sperry p. 107; 208; Isaiah 8, 9) The Assyrians gathered up the members of the tribes in 721 BC taking them northward and from wherever that was they disappeared from history. During the millennium they will return. Before this captivity Laban and others of Manesseh and Ephraim had left and gone to the Jerusalem area. Lehi and Ishmael both had been motivated to move south out of the area of the ten tribes, if not they would have been swept up along with the members of the ten tribes and vanished

SAMUEL

Four different experts on the scriptures have slightly different meanings for this  Hebrew meaning “name of God”- “God’s name is Elohim.” (Douglas p. 1384) Hebrew origin “God heard.” (Mandel p. 453) Hebrew  “His divine name is El.” (Gardiner p. 378) Hebrew  “Name of God” or “His name is God,” (Buttrick  R-Z, p. 201) See also the discussion of SAM above.

The Biblical SAMUEL  was the last of the judges in ancient Israel and was the Prophet commanded by God to institute the Monarchy,  and personally anoint the first two kings Saul and David. (1 Sam. 1-16) During his ministry in the western hemisphere, Christ affirmed that “all the prophets from SAMUEL.…have testified of me.”  (3 Ne.  20:24; Acts 3:24; Largey p. 697) But so did all of the prophets from Adam to Samuel as well! Luke in the Book of Act lists him as the First of the Prophets. (Acts 13:20)  He was also the last of the judges. (Douglas p. 1384) 

There are two Samuels in the Book of Mormon, the first is the Biblical Samuel, just noted, the other Samuel is the little known,  but the  very important, Lamanite Prophet. He will be discussed in AKKADIAN PART 38, the next study in this series.

SAMUEL was the first born son of Elkanah, an Ephraimite and Hannah, who seems to have been a Levite. The family was rich and important. Samuel became the overseer of  major social and political transitions at the end of the period of the Judges in the last three quarters of the 11th century BC. Samuel judged Israel from his home, in Ramah, a few miles north of Jerusalem.  He was renowned for his extraordinary faith and ability to intercede with the Lord.  He was born in answer to tearful prayers and pleadings of his mother HANNAH, who was barren,  vowed if she had a son, she would  turn him over to Eli the Priest at Shiloh as Nazarite to serve the Lord all his life. CHRIST was also a Nazarite, a Hebrew word meaning “consecrated one.” (Gardiner p. 378; Numbers 6:1-24; Buttrick, R-Z,  p. 201) She had a son, and she turned him over, after weaning, to Eli the Priest of Shiloh.  Each year when Hannah visited Shiloh, for the family’s annual sacrifices, she brought her son a new robe she had made for him.

In the Book of Samuel he is called an Ephraimite (1 SAM. 1) and in 1 Chronicles 6:28  he is also listed as a descendant of  Kohath the son of Levi. He was married and had two sons, Joel and Abijarh. He had supreme authority over religious matters. He was a leader of the prophetic guilds of his day. The annual sacrificial meal could not commence without his blessing.  He gave orders, invited guests, and determined the seating order. He consecrated the oil, anointed and blessed, and determined the disposition of spoils and captives of war. He was remembered as a “ Man of God,” a “judge,” a “prophet” and a “seer” and was one of the  precursors of the prophets of the eight century BC. (Buttrick,  R-Z, p. 202)

While still a child, an unknown man of God announced the downfall of the priestly family of Eli. Eli had two sons both were corrupt, and both were killed at the Battle of Aphek. At the news Eli fall off his chair and broke his neck. Samuel was now the religious leader.  As a child he experienced the prophetic call, the summons and voice of the Lord. A beautiful story in itself.

At a vast meeting, Samuel called the people to repentance. The Philistines made a massive attack, but there was a miraculous deliverance and the people were saved.

The people agitated for a king to replace Samuel. The Lord considered this apostasy but gave his consent. Saul, a Benjaminite, in search for a herd of lost asses, came to Ramah, where they found his herd for him. The next day, and at Divine command, Samuel “poured a vial of oil on Saul’s head with these words: “Has not the Lord anointed you to be prince over the people Israel?” (1 Sam. 9:16-20) Thus anointed him king.

Then Samuel abdicated his office as a Judge, and charged the king and the people to be faithful to the Lord. (Buttrick, R-Z, p.202) They weren’t and the rest of the story is sad.

They continued their wars. Before one battle with the Philistines, Saul offered  sacrifices for which Samuel reprimanded him  and rejected him from the kingship. Before a battle with the Philistines Jonathan, Saul’s son, broke his vow of fasting which was a death penalty, but the people ransomed his life. In a war against the Amalekites, Samuel issued a hereem,  which required the destruction of everything living, people, aAnimals, royalty, everybody. Saul kept the animals for his troops, and the king, Agag, as his captive. This so enraged Samuel; that he again rejected Saul from the kingship, and personally took a sword and killed the captured king. (1 Sam. 15:22) Samuel had no further contact with Saul.(Douglas pp. 1384-1386)  Samuel, again under divine direction secretly anointed David to be King. David went to serve Saul as a singer and to play the lyre. But when David became overly popular for killing Goliath, Saul became extremely  Jealous  and in a rage  with intent to kill  David.

There follows the attempts of Saul to kill David and David’s repeated efforts not to kill Saul. During which time David married Abigail, a widow of a rich Calebite. David became a mercenary for the Philistines and they sent him to Ziklag not trusting him to fight against his own people, but the Amalekites  had ruined the city.  David pursued them and rescued the women and children.      

The Philistine army laid siege to Gilboa. Samuel as an old man had passed away. Saul, without Samuel, and not on good terms with the Lord, and in despair, sought to get the Witch of Endor to conjure up the spirit of Samuel. She did and Samuel complained about it, and told Saul they would be defeated. And they were. And bodies were hung on the walls of the city. They were defeated. Saul’s three sons were killed and Saul himself, spotted by archers of the Philistines, sent an array of arrows wounding him so badly he fell on his own sword. Saul was beheaded and his corpse and armor hung in one of their temples. The people of Jabesh-gilead who Saul had rescued once, went all night to claim the bodies. (Gardiner p. 392)  Saul was king for twenty years “He fought against all his enemies on every side and delivered Israel out of the hands of those who plundered them.” (1 Sam. 14:47-48)

The Amalekite who brought the news to David claimed he himself had killed Saul. David slew the Amalikite and sang a dirge over Saul and Jonathan. (11 Sam. 1) After the death of Saul the elders of Israel anointed David King in Hebron. After the capture of the Jebusite City of Jerusalem David made his capital there. (Buttrick,  R-Z, pp. 201-209)   You know the rest of the story about David. Out of vengeance all of the other sons and grandsons of Saul, some seven, were located and killed. As far as I can find out Saul had no living issue from any sons or grandsons. He made have had some through daughters.  There is great tragedy in the lives of the first kings of Israel, Saul, David, and Solomon.  

                                                 BIBLIOGRAPHY

BAKER, Heather D., The Prosopography of the Neo--Assyrian Empire, Vol.3/1 P-S, University of Helsinki, Finland, 2002

BENZ, Frank, I. Personal Names in the Phoenician and Punic Inscriptions, ROME, Biblical Institute Press, 1972

BLACK, Jeremy, Andrew George & Nicholas Postgate, Eds. A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, Harrassowitz  Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2000

DOUGLAS, J. D., Ed., The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Inter-Varsity Press, Tyndale House Pub., Hodder and Stroughton, Sidney, 1980

ALBRAITH, David B, D. Kelly Ogden, Andrew Skinner, Jerusalem, the Eternal City, Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1996

GARDNER. Joseph I., Who’s Who in the Bible, Reader’s Digest, Pleasantville, New  York. 1994

HUNTER, Milton R. The Gospel Through the Ages, Stevens and Wallis, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah 1945

LARGEY, Dennis I., Book of  Mormon Reference Companion , Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 2003

LUDLOW, Daniel,  A Companion to  your Study of the Book of Mormon, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah 1976

MENDEL, David, Who’s Who in the Tenakh, Aerial Books, Tel Aviv,, Israel, 2014

NIBLY, Hugh, Vol. 5,  Lehi in the Desert. The World of the Jaredites, There were Jaredites, FARMS, BYU, Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1988

…………………………1952 Edition

………………... Vol. 8, The Prophetic Book of Mormon, FARMS, BYU. Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1989

PINEGAR, Ed. J., & Richard Allen, Book of Mormon Who’s Who, Covenant Communications, American Fork, Utah. 2007

SAGGS, H. W. F., The Babylonians, The Folio Society, London, 1988

JST- SMITH, Smith, The Holy Scriptures, Herald Publishing House,  Independence Missouri,1959

SORENSON, JOHN L., Mormon’s Codex, .Neal Maxwell Institute, Deseret Book Company. Salt Lake City, Utah, 2013

SPERRY, Sidney B., Book of Mormon, Compendium, Bookcraft, Salt lake City, 1968

…………………………Some Thoughts Concerning Ancient Temples and Their Functions, Improvement Era 58, no. 11 (November 1955); 814-1816, 826-27.

 

TAYLOR, John, The Mediation and Atonement, Steven & Wallis, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1950

All research and opionions presented on this site are the sole responsibility of Dr. Einar C. Erickson, and should not be interpreted as official statements of the LDS doctrine, beliefs or practice.
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