Dr. Einar C. Erickson
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Adam imparted revelation to his son Seth and showed him his original greatness before the transgression and his going out of paradise. He recommended his son Seth never fail in justice. Seth welcomed the teachings of his father with a pure heart. It was given to him to inscribe this wisdom in a book and to teach it. And thanks to him for the first time in this world there was seen a book written in the name of the Most High. A righteous God-given book.



The gospel in the last dispensation would need a nation with sufficient opportunities and economic strength to host such a restored kingdom with the rhythm of going first to the rich and then to the poor, and then the Lord would “hasten” his work in its time. (D&C 88:73)  America, with all its imperfections has served well as the stable host nation for the restoration.  One needs to be reminded that not only does the Lord see the end from the beginning but he also sees the middle. The emerging of his Kingdom required certain conditions for that restoration to succeed. Indeed the Lord had prepared a place and a time and a season for all of it. He also prepared a prophet, through whom all the “marvelous work and a wonder” would unfold-even amid many challenges and difficulties (2 Ne. 25:17) Among the miracles are the details. Among so many things it would require a science called archaelogy, intrepid and curious explorers, linguists to translate tablet after tablet, document after document, from a whole range of ruined cities, kingdoms and peoples over thousands of years, divers and extreme, between the two great rivers, the Euphrates and Tigris, among them, and along  the coast and inland of the Levant  and the mighty Nile, all would perish but their artifacts would be found and translated  to give real life to the more than  300 names in the Book  of Mormon, spelled out distinctly to the Great Joseph.  “Think, too of how the language of reformed Egyptian required a rich receiving language such as English, with its variety and nuances. What was on the golden plates flowed best into a golden language. Feasting on the gospel is greatly facilitated by its “enough and to spare” abundance.” (D&C 104:17, Maxwell  pp. 128-129)


ONIHAH is the name of a very wicked city that killed both prophets and saints. CHRIST caused waters to cover the city and its inhabitants to destroy them in order that the blood of the martyrs would cease to testify against them. (3 Nephi 9:78; Largey p. 623)

The two elements in the name, ON and –IHAH have been discussed before where they are contained in other names and also in what follows. The element ON stands for deity and the -IHAH prefix gives a theophoric ending to the name of JEHOVAH, so the name may be read ‘JEHOVAH is GOD.’


The system of weights and measures of the Nephites about 100 BC is specifically  out lined in Alma 11:5-19, to  underscore the high value of a bribe that Zeezrom offered to Amulek when he was preaching in the very wicked city of Ammonihah. Zeezrom offered six ONTIES of silver or the equivalent of 42 measures of grain,  equal to 42 days pay to a judge,  if Amulek would deny the existence of a supreme  being.  Coins are not mentioned, ‘measures’ were based on quantity or capacity; for example, in Hebrew the basic amount was a homer, equal to a donkey load.  In Akkadian the donkey load was an imer, the homer and the imer were 48.4 gallons.  A ‘measure’ must have been a large quantity because judges do not come cheap. The bribe was 42 measures, so the bribe was about 1734.8 dry gallons. (Douglas p. 1637)

An ONTI of silver, as shown in the chart included in this entry, was equal in value to that of a limnah of gold. In weight, an ONTI  would weigh less than a like amount of gold. The two pieces of metal would have the same value, but the amount of metal would differ, the gold would weigh the same but be smaller in quantity. Today an ounce of silver is worth $17.50, gold is heavier, so a smaller amount of the metal is worth $1260 per ounce. Can you imagine taking a tablespoon full of gold dust and realizing it is worth about 80 pieces of silver, an ounce each, in weight? Also the values of the pieces of metals were not after the “manner of the Jews” but appear to have been developed by the Nephites in the Americas. The Lydians originated coins in the sixth century BC, (or earlier by the Chinese). Lehi was long gone. (Welch pp. 112-113)

The -TI element is found in Akkadian as a prefix with varied meaning. (Black pp. 405-408) On tablets from Ebla it means ‘exists,’ (Pagan p. 369), so one reading could be: ONTI, ‘wealth exists.’ The Nephite system was a peculiarly efficient one (Smith p. 610), developed after Lehi had left the Middle East. This is another example of internal authenticity. The element –TI  or just - I is a common West Semitic ending found among names from the ancient Murasu documents. (Coogan, P. 109)

The two elements in the name, ON and TI resonate with Egyptain names of DEITY (Shorter pp. 1227; 137) and the religious center at ONON means ‘vigor,’ (Buttrick  p. 601) or ‘wealth.’ (Mandel p. 11) It is the Hebrew form of the Egyptian name of HELIOPOLIS, City of the Sun, where Potiphera, father in Law of Joseph, was high priest, (Buttrick p. 601) and where our ancestress Asenath (Gen. 41, 55-52; 46:20) was born.   ONTI = SILVER=WEALTH.

In studying the chart with this entry, the selection of 1,2,4, and 7 for the values of the larger coins or pieces of metal was particularly wise. In every case it turns out that this system has an edge over other systems from the standpoint of the number of coins or pieces of metal required for a purchase. (Smith pp. 316-17; Largey pp. 609-610; Douglas p. 1637)

In 1974 Paul Jesclard published an article in the SOCIETY FOR EARLY HISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY, entitled A Comparison of the Nephite Monetary System with the  Egyptian system of Measuring Grain. Numerically, if one adds the mathematical values of the lesser amounts of silver that equal an ONTI, which “was as great as them all” the value is 63/64 or not  quite a full measure. In Egyptian the actual word ONTI is interpreted as “Short of an amount.” It can also mean “a small weight at a scale.” (Jesclard pp. 1-55)


This name is misspelled in the Pronouncing Guide. It should be spelled OPHIR. It is a reference from 2 Nephi 23:12: “I will make a man more precious than fine gold: even a man than the golden wedge of Ophir” taken from Isaiah 12:13. OPHIR is mentioned in Gen. 10:29 and Kings 10:11 and Psalm 45:9. OPHIR was ”synonymous with gold.” (Douglas p. 119) Anciently it refers to a people descended from Shem through the lineage Arpachshad, Sheleh, Eber and Joktan (Gen 10:29; 1 Chr. 1:23). Islamic tradition equates Joktan with Qahtan, a son of Ismael and father of the Arabs. (Douglas p. 1119) In Isaiah the reference is to a region or territory known for its production of gold and Almug trees, a form of sandle wood, one red variety was imported from Africa for use in the wooden objects and musical instruments in the temple of Solomon. (Buttrick p. 88) In the Biblical historical narrative it refers to the source of the 3,000 talents (each 66 pounds) of fine gold left by David for the temple.(1 Chr. 29:4) Solomon built a fleet of ships manned by Phoenicians and Israelites that brought back 420  talents of gold, silver, Almug trees, precious stones, ivory, and two kind of monkeys after a three year journey. (11 Chr. 8:18; Buttrick p. 605; Sperry p. 235-236)) The list of items suggests a place in Africa or India for the location of Ophir, but its location has been lost to history and while many have searched for it, the location has never been identified. JEHOSAPHAT attempted to duplicate Solomon’s expedition to Ophir, but his ships were broken up at Ezion-geber before setting sail. (Buttrick pp. 605-606; Douglas p. 1118)


OREB is a place name, the name of a rock-marker of a bloody battle with the Midianites by the Israelites quoted from Isaiah 10, in 2 Nephi 20:26. “And the Lord of Hosts shall stir up a scourge for him according to the slaughter of Midian at the rock of OREB.” No meaning is given for the name. If it was named by the Midianites, as it seems it was, the name would go back to the time of Abraham and be very ancient.  The Midianites came from Midian, one of the six sons of Abraham by his third wife Keturah. Abraham, in order to preserve the inheritance for Isaac, endowed these six sons and sent them away.  (Mandel p. 362)

The name OREB has the consonant element ‘RB’ which in Akkadian has the form of ‘RAB’ meaning ‘chief, overseer of.’ (Black  p. 293) When developed, Hebrew resumed the usage of the letter ‘O’ thus the name became OREB, and used in the Biblical text of Isaiah and as a place name for a critical battle.

OREB was one of the Midianite princes who were captured by the Ephraimites during the battles with the Midianites after Gideon’s surprise attack had routed their forces. He had cut the retreat of the enemy, seized the two princes, OREB and ZEEB and promptly executed them. They presented their heads to Gideon and may have named the rock marker of the battle after OREB. (Buttrick p. 608) 


ORIHAH  is listed as the fourth son of JARED, the founder of the JAREDITE Nation. After JARED, he was appointed the first king of the Jaredites. He was the last choice among all the sons of both Jared and Jared’s brother. He ignored the warning of the brother of Jared not to appoint kings; “Surely this thing leadeth into captivity.” (Ether 6:27) He was humble before the Lord and executed Judgement in righteousness. (Ether 1:32; 6:30)  He was succeeded by his son Kib whose own son Corihor, a very greedy man, rose up in rebellion against his father. The pattern of intertwining righteous and wicked leadership continued to the end of Jaredite history.

ORIHAH had thirty-one children, twenty-three of which were sons. (Ether 6:14, 27-30; 7:1-30; Largey pp. 430-431; Pinagar p. 151) It is evident that the early  Jaredites practiced polygamy.

Dissecting the name we recall that there is no ‘O’ in the West Semitic languages, so we are looking at a prefix that may be ‘RI-’ with various readings and find them in Akkadian, that includes ‘requite, replace, favor, Compensate,’ (Black p. 303) and ‘compensation,’ in the tablets from Ebla. (Pagan p. 357)

The suffix ending of ‘-HAH’ makes the name ORIHAH an example of a theophoric name containing –IHAH, the JEHOVAH element.  One might examine the Joseph Smith Inspired Version change made in Exodus 6:3.  By the name JEHOVAH, Christ was known in the spirit world and before and during the creation of this world; recall the Temple Ceremony. There are two references to the Sacred name JEHOVAH  in the Book of Mormon, quoted by Nephi from Isaiah 12:2 “Behold,  GOD is my salvation…for the Lord JEHOVAH is my strength and my song he also has become my salvation.” (2 Ne. 22:2; Pinegar p. 81) The other is in the final verse of the Book of Mormon. “…to meet you before the pleasing bar of the great JEHOVAH, the Eternal Judge of both the quick and the dead…” (Moro. 10:34; Pinegar p. 82) So the name ORIHAH could be read as ‘Jehovah favors or compensates.’  Jesus is not referred to as JEHOVAH in the New Testament.



When Mosiah the younger established the rule of judges, it was to be done by the voice of the people. (Mosiah 29:39) About the year 52 BC  Pahoran, the chief judge and son of Nephiah, the former chief judge of the Nephites, died and a violent debate concerning who should be his successor developed. The three contenders for the seat were Pahoran‘s sons, PAHORAN 11, PAANCHI, and PACUMENI. (SEE BELOW) These are all Egyptian names. (Sperry p. 374)  PAHORAN 11, was voted into the office by the voice of the people. PAANCHI and his followers were furious, he was planning a rebellion when he was arrested and tried under the law and condemned to death for having sought the destroy the liberty of the people (Hel. 1:8) His followers hired an assassin, Kishkumen, to kill Pahoran 11, Pacumeni was then installed as chief judge and governor (Hel 1:13).  Pacumeni was saying that it was his right to the seat because his father and brothers were all deceased. It “was his right.” (Hel. 1:13; Sorensen pp. 370-371)

Kishkumen and his collaborator, GADIANTON, laid the foundation for secret combinations and darkness that were to flourish over the next period of time. (Pinegar p. 152)

“Egyptain names in the old world show…it was popular at the time [Lehi’s day] to  name children after famous Egyptain heroes of the past…a surprisingly large number of Egyptain names found among the Nephites were those of early Egyptain kings and heroes…the first king of Egypt was AHA, which means ‘warrior’….this name was  bestowed by a Nephite commander-in-chief on his son. Other royal and hero-names in the Book of Mormon are HIMNI, KORIHOR,  PAANCHI, PACUMENI, SAM,  ZEEZROM, HEM, MANTI,  NEPHI AND ZENOCH…Zeniff…cognate with Arabic Zaybab…SHEBA, the most famous woman in Egypt.” (Nibley Vol. 8, p. 101) Other Egyptian names were not such well known role models. Nibley was working with the early Tell Ta’annek List, “in which the element BIN is prominent…Bin-da-ni…Book of Mormon ABINADI, as well as –ZI-RA and ANDI combinations,”  and “the Babylonian captive list that included Philistine, Phoenician, Median, Persian, Greek and Lydian names-the sweepings of a campaign into Lehi’s country.“ (Ibid p. 102) Names from most of these places are found in the Book of Mormon, but Joseph did not have access to those lists! So more internal evidence for authenticity. So “there is not much room for quibbling about the “Egypticity” of such Book of Mormon names as KORIHOR, PAANCHI, PACUMENI, or GIDDIANHI. [note in this name a double “dd.” (Ibid, p. 246)

In the name PAANCHI the elements  PA, PAA, PAAN, double “AA” and sometimes three AAA’s, as is the inscription:  PAAA,  the hyieroglyphic  PA-AA-EN AMEN, meaning ‘the capital” of the nome Sma Beht.’ The PA, or PAA, or PAAA, all mean about the same: as a place name, “town, capital, city, district” with the rest of the Hieroglyphic providing the details of the ‘what and where.’  The hieroglyphic for the elements, PA, PAA, PAAA,  is an image of a large bird taking off in flight, with wings stretched out and facing to the left, with feet extended downward as if just leaving the water ore land,  and gaining air; generally placed at the end of the inscription. (Budge p. 981)  In Egypt PAANCHI was the son of Kherihor, chief high priest of Amon. Another with the name was a ruler of the south who conquered all of Egypt and was high priest of Amon at Thebes. (Nibley Vol 5 p. 27) Also compare with the Egyptian variants Pianachi, Paankh, Paiankh.

PAIANKH, was the son of Kherihor and Chief High Priest of Ammon.  The name, in the form PAANKHI, is borne by two rulers of the South, in the first and fourth kings of Dynasty XXV, it is absolutely identical with the PAANCHI of Helaman 1:3. Nibley provides an illustration and translation of the hieroglyphics for the name.. (Ibid p. 29). See the image with this entry.

 The name Paanchi was not known to scholars until the late 1800’S fully fifty years after it had appeared in the Book of Mormon. (Nibley p. 192-193)


PACHUS was the revolutionary leader and usurper of the throne. He was king of the Nephite dissenters about 61 BC, (Alma 61:6) who drove chief judge PAHORAN and many free men out of Zarahemla and blocked supply shipments to Nephite armies to the consternation of Captain Moroni (Alma 61:3-5) during the wars of 52 BC. Pachus made an alliance with the king of the Lamanites that would have given him continued kingship over the people of Zarahemla, had the Lamanites conquered the rest of the lands (Alma 61:8).  But Moroni joined forces with Pahoran at Gideon and defeated the men of Pachus at Zarahemla.  Pachus was killed in this battle, and the remaining rebels who would not take up arms in the defense of their country were put to death.  (Alma 62:6-8) “Whosoever was found denying their freedom were speedily executed according to the law.” (Alma 62:8-10)

PACHUS is also an Egyptian name, with some Egyptian variants: PA-KS, PACH-QS, and PA-CHES-I, meaning ‘he is praised.’ (Nibley Vol. p. 30)

In the New World, his name “is found in the Peruvian Paccha-camac, which means ‘world-creator,’ and was the name given to the Deity. The Chibchas, in what is now Columbia, has the same name for God, in the shorter form, BOCHI-CA, it is also found in such royal titles as PACHA-CUTEC;  Inca Yupanqui, where it seems to be equivalent to “Lord.” In that case it is identical in meaning with the             Pachus of the Book of Mormon, the ‘title’ assumed by the dissenting king.

 PACHUS means both “world and time” or perhaps an “eternity.” That connects it in meaning, though not in form, with the Hebrew OLAM, which also means both  ‘world and eternity.’” (Reynolds p. 334)


When Mosiah the younger established the rule of judges, it was to be done by the voice of the people. (Mosiah 29:39) But as noted above that was being changed to ‘divine right.’ When the great PAHORAN the chief judge and son of NEPHIAH the former chief judge, died, three of his sons, PAHORAN 11, PAANCHI, and PACUMENI, again confirming Egyptain influence in the Book of Mormon, and all seriously contending for the seat. These three names are all Egyptian. (Sperry p. 374)

PACUMENI was the son of Pahoran, who, following the death of his father contended with two of his brothers, Pahoran and Paanchi, for the judgement seat (Hel. 1:2-4) This was during the wars and civil unrest of about 52 BC.  When the popular voice chose Paharan, Pacumeni united with the people’s will, but Paanchi and his supporters rebelled. (Heleman 1:5-7) They contracted with an assassin, KISHKUMEN, to kill Pahoran,  Pacumeni was then chosen by the people to be chief Judge. (Helaman 1:9, 13) This created more civil unrest and allowed the Lamanites to conquer Zarahemla and their military leader, Coriantumr killed Pacumeni. (Helaman 1:18-21) KISHKUMEN is also Egyptian, was killed when he tried to kill the chief Judge and a strong man of his followers, GIDIANTON, took over the leadership and with the secret band fled into the wilderness. (Ludlow p. 76)


PAGAG was the firstborn of MAHONRI MORIANCUMER, the prophet brother of Jared. (Ether 1:3)  PAGAG is one of the few descendants of the brother of Jared mentioned in the Book of Mormon. The people wanted him to be king. But he refused the position. When the people wanted his father to prevail upon him, the brother of Jared “commanded” that they “constrain no man to be their king.” (Ether 6:23-25)

Since the name is in the early part of the Book of Ether, it is likely related to Akkadian words and names. The consonantal elements are PG and PGG. In Akkadian the element PAGA- seems to mean “to be strong;” the second G may  have been added for emphasis to mean “is strong” (Black p. 260), and could have been in the form of PAGALU. (Black p. 184) In many Jaredite names there are duplications of certain elements in a name, in his name you would have AG and AGA. Some of this has been discussed when we were working on the names  of the letter G.  


PAHORAN 1, was the third chief judge following the reign of Mosiah, the last of the Nephite kings. The first judge was Alma the Younger, who was succeeded by PAHORAN’S father Nephihah. Pahoran’s tenure lasted from 67 BC to until his death about 52 BC. (Alma 50:39-40) He was succeeded by his son also named Pahoran 11, by the voice of the people.  PACUMENI accepted the democratic vote, but his brother was so furious that he and his followers hired a professional assassin to kill his brother PAHORAN 11, but  he was arrested for inciting rebellion and executed. His followers, went ahead with the assassination, and placed Pacumeni as chief judge, which office he only held a year before he was killed by the invading Lamanites. (Largey p. 155)

In the old world, particularly Egypt, the name Pacumeni has the form Pakamen. Recall that the C letter was little used or dropped in some languages and in its place the letter K was provided, as in this case. The Egyptian proper name means “blind man.” PAKAMEN (or the variants PAMENCHES, and in Greek, PACHOMIOS) was commander of the south and high priest of Horus. (Nibley Vol. 5 p. 28)


When the chief judge, Pahoran 1, died, his three sons contended for the office. Pahoran 11, was voted in by the people. His brother PAANCHI rebelled, his followers hired an assassin to kill PAHORAN 11, which they did. But Paanchi was arrested and executed for rebellion. The rebels under the leadership of Kishkumen and Gadianton, and their secret combinations, installed the third brother PACUMENI, but not without much discord.  The people let down their guard and were shocked when the Lamanites under Coriantumr, a dissident who was a descendent of Zarahemla took over the city the following year and killed Pacumeni (Hel. 1:21) The three brothers were all dead.

The Nephite generals Moroni and Lehi, moving in from the border regions, then gained a decisive victory over the entrapped Lamanites. Coriantumr was slain and the country was again liberated. (Hel. 1:32-33)

PAHORAN is PA-ER-AN in Egyptian, ”He was ambassador of Egypt in Palestine where his name has the “reformed” reading PAHURA in Egyptian as PA-HER-Y, it means “the Syrian” or Asiatic.” (Nibley Vol. 5. P. 27)


PALESTINA  or PALASTINE  is found  in two verses of Chap. 14 of Isaiah: 29 and 31,  quoted in 2 Nephi 29 and 31. The name originally applied to the territory of Israel’s foes, the Philistines.  Herodotus used it as a designation for S. Syria. Palestina was the form the Romans used for the territory. No meaning is given. (Douglas p. 1131) There are important and interesting things in Isaiah 14. It informs us of the horrors and capture and domination by the Assyrians, 800 to 700 BC. The capture of the ten tribes. How Israel will be gathered and enjoy millennial rest (verses 1 through 23, Parry pp. 140-142) with insights into the status and rebellion and the fall of and the name, LUCIFER, for the rebel and evil one. (Perry pp. 146-115)The rest of the chapter tells through visions to Isaiah how the lord will deal with each nation in its turn including the destruction of the temple and the decline of Israel. PALESTINA is quoted in two verses about the complete destruction of the Philistines and the conclusion of the status of those who are in the wicked world, or in Babylon, applicable to the Babylon of our day.  

Verse 29 is directed to the Philistines pagan enemies of Israel who are going to be eliminated: “Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken, for out of the serpent’s root [Satans’s kingdom] shall come forth a cockatrice, [poisonous serpent, Assyria] and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent.” Who in the future will bring even more evil.

And Verse 31: “Howl O gate, cry , O city; thou, whole PALESTINA, art dissolved [totally] for there  shall come from the north a smoke, [the Assyrians]  and none shall be alone [left to attend their appointed times] ]in his appointed time. It tells of the fall of Babylon. (Skousen pp. 271-287; Parry pp. 140-155) Skousen’s and Parry’s commentaries on Isaiah Chapter 14 are well worth reading. 

The next entry will begin with PATHROS




Black, Jeremy, Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate, EDs.,. A concise Dictionary of Akkadian, Harrassowitz Verlag , Wiesbaden, 2000

BUDGE, Sir Ernest A, Wallis, An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, 2 Vol.  Cosmos Classic, Cosmos Inc., New York. 2010

BUTTRICK, George A. The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, Abingdon Press, New York, 1962

COOGAN, Michael P. West Semitic Personal Names in the Muras Documents, Edwards Brothers, Inc. Ann Arbor, 1976

DOUGLAS, J. D., The Illustrated Bible Dictionary of the Bible, Inter-varsity Press, Tyndale House Publishers, Hodder and Stroughton, Sydney, 1980

JESCLARD, Paul R. A Comparison of the Nephite Monetary System with the Egyptian System of Measuring Grain, Newsletter and Proceedings of the S.E.H.A., BYU, Provo, Utah, October. 1973 

LARGEY, Dennis I. Book of Mormon Reference Companion, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake, Utah, 2003

LUDLOW, Daniel  H. A Companion to Your Study of the Book of Mormon, Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1976

MANDEL, David, Who’s Who in the Tenakh, Aerial Books, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2004

NIBLEY, Hugh,Vol. 5, Lehi in the Deseret, The world of the Jaredites,There were Jaredites, FARMS, BYU, Deseret Book Company, Salt Laker City, Utah, 1988

…………………… Vol 8, The Prophetic Book of Mormon, FARMS BYU, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1989

……………………Since Cumorah, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1967  

           MAXWELL, Neal, The Promise of Discipleship, Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, 2001

PAGAN, Joseph M., A Morphological and Lexical Study of Personal Names in the Ebla Texts., Universita Degli Studia Di Roma. ARES 111, 1998

PARRY, Donald W., Jay A. Parry, Tina M. Peterson, Understanding Isaiah, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1998

PINEGAR,  Ed J.,  and Richard Allen, The Book of Mormon Who’s Who, Covenant Communications, American Fork, Utah, 2007

REYNOLDS, George. Sjodahl Janne, Commentary on the Book of Mormon, Vol. 11, Deseret Book Co.., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1956

SHORTER, Alan W. The Egyptian Gods, Routledge & Kegan and Paul, London 1978

SKOUSEN, Cleon W. Isaiah Speaks to Modern Times, The Ensign Publishing Co., Salt Lake City, 1984 Utah,

SMITH, Richard Pearson, The Nephite Monetary System, Improvement Era 57,  May, 1954

SPERRY, Sidney B., Book of Mormon Compendium, Bookcraft, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1962


WELCH, John W., J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon, FARMS, BYU, Provo, Utah. 1999

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