Dr. Einar C. Erickson
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When they were talking about heavenly enthronement following baptism and certain rites, they considered themselves involved in a priestly ritual. It involved a garment, a girdle, a covering shirt, a priestly stole, a crown, special drawers and a staff, sandals included.

DESOLATION to EZROM

INTRODUCTION

The listing of Book of Mormon names on pages 532-535 at the end of the Book of Mormon, for whatever reason, has omitted some names and words that do occur in the Book of Mormon.  Under E,  EDEN is not listed,  But because it is extremely important in gospel history and doctrine, it has been included here. For us mortals that is where it all began.

EDEN:  EDIN, EDANU, EDENU, EDANIS 

EDEN is the place name for where Adam and Eve lived prior to their fall. They were told "for in the day thou eatest thereof, thou shall surely die," (Andersen p. 43)  referring to the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Adam lived to 930 years, so they may have spent 70 years in the garden. Everyone familiar with the Judaic- Christian religious history  knows about the story of Eden as contained in the Book of Genesis. But they do not have the knowledge of the prologue  that precedes it. (Anderson pp. 1-43)

Mandel would have us believe that EDEN is Hebrew in Origin and means "delight." (Mandel p. 129)  But Hebrew is not generally thought to have emerged until after 1400 BC.   Yet less than a 1000 years earlier Abraham knew about Eden and what happened there. (Abraham 5.8)  In fact an important event in Eden is recorded  by Abraham on his Facsimile No. 2., where "the grand Key-Words of the Holy Priesthood , as [were] revealed to Adam in the Garden of Eden," probably at the time God married and sealed Adam and Eve in the Garden.  (Abraham pp. 36-37)  In fact the Key-Words, the sealing, and details accompanying them would have been known intimately by all righteous persons during the dispensations of Adam, Enoch, Noah, and Abraham, before Moses received the details from his father-in-law Jethro. (D&C 84:6-7) Like Abraham, Moses no doubt had access to ancient records from which he abridged Genesis and others to set the stage for an official Old Testament.  Much of the Old Testament is what happened after Moses looked over the great Jordan valley from the top of Mt. Nebo.

EDEN was also used for the name of a man, a Levitical priest, in 2 Chronicles 29:12.  The same priest was also called IDDO in l Chronicles 6:22.

 Mormon religion puts some different spin on aspects of the Eden story.  The Temple Ceremony revolves around the episodes in the Garden of Eden, with a content only understood  by Mormon's.  Ancient documents recovered representing teachings before and after the time of Christ contribute to a reconstruction of what happened there, in agreeement with Mormon Doctrine.  (see the CD's on the DEAD SEA SCROLL, THE MANDEANS,  NAG HAMMADI, ET AL),  lost to most of the religious world. 

"The Gods Planted a Garden in Eden;...And I the Lord  God and the other Gods planted a garden eastward in Eden..." (Andersen p. 42) There was a place on earth after its creation that was called Eden. "And the Gods planted a garden eastward  in Eden, and there they put the man, whose spirit they had put in the body which they had formed."  (Abraham l:3; 5:8) Some of the Garden of Eden story is figurative. Revelation has given us knowledge of how Adam was placed there.  He was given birth by Mother and Father, our heavenly parents, and when mature was placed in the garden.  Abraham was seeking for the priesthood, the right was conferred upon Abraham from the fathers;  "even the RIGHT  of the FIRSTBORN, or the FIRST MAN, who is ADAM,  or FIRST FATHER, through the fathers unto me." (Abraham l:3)  Adam was and is THE FIRSTBORN, [on the earth] or THE FIRST MAN, who is ADAM, or the FIRST FATHER. His was an immortal body, it did not become mortal until Adam and Eve partook of the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. This was speaking of the Human Race intended to inhabit this earth.  It seems that the Adams and Eves of every world are given birth by their heavenly parents, to initiate a transfer of spirits nurtured in their presence to an earth.  This does not do much for evolutionary theory, but it is specific doctrine, so all previous so-called 'PRE-ADAMIC' men, do not have a spirit nurtured in a heavenly setting  nurtured by  divine Parents.  So what are these so called 'pre-Adamic men'?  A higher form of animal?   At best, but not true man embodied with an eternal spirit from the eternal worlds.                    

ALMA gives some geographical detail about EDEN  not found elsewhere.  Adam and Eve were driven eastward out of the Garden.  The TREE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD AND EVIL was in the eastern part of the Garden: and "God placed at the east end of the garden of EDEN Cherubim, [angels] and a flaming sword, which turned every way, to keep [Adam and Eve from eating] the tree of life-" (Alma 42:2-3)  The purpose was not only to prevent Adam and Eve from partaking again of the fruit of that tree, but as Alma points out, like none other,  it was to provide all mankind  "a space [of time]  granted unto man in which he might repent; therefore this life became a probationary state; a time to prepare to meet God." and the endless state after the resurrection. (Alma 12:21-25)  Man needed a space or period of time "for repentance" and to SERVE GOD, to generate the good works on which man would be judged, which man desperately needs, and to keep the Plan  of God from being void and frustrated. (Alma 42:4-7) 

So, EDEN is the place where the mature Adam and Eve lived prior to their fall. The Book of Mormon confirms biblical teachings concerning Eden and what occurred there, such as the existence of the garden, (2 Ne 2:19), the forbidden fruit and the tree of life, (2 Ne 2:15), the placing of the flaming sword (Alma12:21), the presence of the serpent, Lucifer-Satan, (2 Ne. 2:17-18) and other teachings such as there is opposition in all things. (2 Ne. 2:11)   2 Ne. chapter 2 and Alma chapter 12 are great resources on pertinent doctrines about Eden and what happened there.  (Largey p. 240)

The Jaredites were very knowledgeable and no doubt had records equal to the Brass Plates, and conducted ceremonies such as other dispensations had done.  The name EDEN does not occur within the Book of Ether, but the name is ancient.  It does occur in several forms in the Akkadian Dictionary, as Edanu, Edenu, Idenu, generally having the meaning of "alone, sole, single, and isolated." (Black p. 66)  The garden in  EDEN was apparently, alone, single, isolated, and one of its kind:  A unique garden. The Akkadian work EDANIS reaffirms the meaning of being 'alone' and the word EDANU(M) with mimation,  indicates a 'fixed time, appointment,'  a place as an appointment, fixed in time, for a unique purpose. (Black p. 65)

In the records of EBLA, about 2300 BC,mention is made of some previous city states, particularly the ancient cities of LAGASH and UMMA, where there was a stressful dispute over  of  a prime piece of grazing land with a canal, the land was called Edin (Eden) which was a place so esteemed and in much dispute, it dominated  means and energy between Lagash and Umma. ((Bermant p. 26)  This places the name deep in antiquity without having to invoke  Biblical usage or source.

The MASSORITIC TEXT from which much of the King James Bible was taken says, God planted a garden in  EDEN:  GAN-e.-EDEN (Gen. 2:8) "the garden was not co-extensive with EDEN, but must have been an enclosed area within it; a single, isolated place.  The LXX and Vulgate and subsequent commentators...suggest..[the] meaning 'delight'...but many scholars...hold that EDEN is...from Sumerian EDIN, 'plain or steppe' ...barrowed either direct from Sumerian, or via Akkadian (edinu) [as noted above] the garden ...being situated in a plain, or flat region. The ending with a 'u'  and sometimes adding an 'm' for favored sound, mimation,  identified the name or word as ancient Sumerian and/ or Akkadian. From its location in EDEN the garden came to be called the 'garden of EDEN' (Gen. 2:15; 3:23-24; Ezk. 36:35; Joel 2:3),  but it was also referred to as the 'garden of God' (Ezk. 31:13; 31:99) and the 'garden of the Lord' (Is. 52:3) .  In Gen. 2:8 , the word GON, 'GARDEN', and in Is. 51:3 Eden itself, is rendered paradeisos by the LXX, this being a loan-word from Old Persian, (Avestan) pairidaeza, an 'ENCLOSURE', which came to mean 'park'...and from this usage came the English 'PARADISE' or the GARDEN OF EDEN."  (Douglas pp. 207-208)                                                                                            
 
If a name, either place or personal,  seems to have been omitted from the listings at the end of the Book of Mormon, the best check is to see if it is included in a concordance, of which there are several available. such as those by Rick, Shapiro, et al.  EDEN is referred to six times by Shapiro in the Book of Mormon. (2 Ne. 2:19, 2:22, 8:3; Al. 12:21, 42:2, 42:2, most defining deep doctrine; Shapiro p. 280)   

EDOM:  EDAMM(U)M

EDOM is a Place name taken from a quote out of Isaiah 1l about Philistine conquests in Edom and Moab.   (2 Ne. 21:14) The name EDOM denotes the name of ESAU,  given in memory of the red pottage for which he exchanged his birthright, and to the land occupied by ESAU'S  descendants.  The territory stretched south from the eastern banks of the Dead Sea to the Bay of Aquaba. (Douglas p. 410)

As in many root names and words, the  O is replaced an with an A and in ancient Sumerian and Akkadian, with the (U)M mimation the meaning becomes 'dream-interpreter' (Black p. 65)  All consistent with onomastic  science, which Joseph knew nothing about, but did not violate any of the  rules that apply .

ELAM: ELAMAN, ELAMU

ELAM is a place name in a quote from Isaiah 11. (2 Ne. 21:11)  It refers to the last days when the Lord will set his hand again to gather his people, some who are still in ELAM.  The Jaredites, especially if engaged in trade as indications are they were, would have personal knowledge of this territory and the Elamites. ELAM is the ancient name of the plain   of KHUZISTAN, watered by the Kerkh river, which joins the Tigris just north of the Persian Gulf. References to ELAM as the son of SHEM, (Gen. 10:22) reflect the presence of early Semites in this area. Rock sculptures and inscriptions in Akkadian were carved for Elamitic Rulers. The mountains north and east of the Plain the Anshan,  help control the trade lanes eastward into the gold and lapis lazuli sources of Bactria.  ELAM is not very well known archaeologically. But it links into the Jaredite history very well, and since they are related to Shem they would have held the priesthood anciently, and truly, today such people would be entitled to be gathered out, and prophetically it is said they will be. Today much of this area is in Iran, and not enough is known about it.  But from the prophecies, before the Second Coming, missionaries will gather out the remnants of the Lords People, some who are in ELAM.  The AKKADIAN word ELAMU, refers to  'and belonging to'  ELAM. (Black p. 68)  So, the Jaredites would have been familiar with the people of ELAM and may have traded with them. Biblical readers will recall the capital city of Susa, where Esther helped preserve the Jewish  people. Susa was the capital city of ELAM.                                                                                      

The name ELAM is also found in the Concordance prepared from the archives of ancient Ur III documents, known as the Garsana Archives that became available in 2009. (Kleinerman pp. 618, 626)  Very ancient indeed. The  Archives provide names from the Sumerian period as well as the Akkadian which followed.

ELIJAH:

ELIJAH was a great prophet of  Israel, about 926 BC. One of those  about which it is said they never died, they were translated, (such as Moses, Enoch, Melchizedic, et al.), see (3 Ne. 24-25;  Pinegar p. 47)  So, his name is Biblical. (l Kings 16:22; 171)  The name means MY GOD IS JEHOVAH. (Mandel p. 140)  As a translated being he administered along with another translated being, Moses, to Jesus Christ on the Mountain of Transfiguration, and as a resurrected being to Joseph Smith at Kirtland April 3, 1836. (D&C Sec 110:13-16)   While not a Jaredite name, it is the name of one of the most important ancient prophets that ever lived. 

EMER: EMERU, EMAR

EMER is the name of an early Jaredite King. (Ether l:28)  EMER was the son of OMER and was anointed  to be the King and reign in Omer's stead.  EMER executed judgment in righteousness and the house of EMER prospered.  EMER was of sufficient personal righteousness that he saw Jesus Christ, the Son of Righteousness  and was reported to have died in peace. (Ether l:19; 9:14-22; Largey pp. 431-432) ) What a blessing it would have been to a people to have as a king a man so righteous that he personally knew Jesus Christ. If his people had been likewise as righteous they might have been translated.

 EMER is a rare name.  It does occur in the ancient Akkadian in the form of EMERU, (Black p. 72)  the U ending a cultural addition, both ancient Sumerians and Akkadians used.It seems to have been used before and at about the time of the Jaredites, but in later Mesopotamian languages it disappears from use. It has the meaning of  "to be red" with a change in the verb stem it may also mean "redden."  It is names such as this that call into question the reality of the Book of Mormon interpretations such as those concluded by Wunderli. (Wunderli pp. 317; 335; 351)  Those who neglect the analysis and historicity of Book of Mormon names do so at their own peril. As a  place name for an ancient City, EMAR, with a vowel interchangeable as e or a, it was contemporary with the ancient Hittite Capital of Carchemish, the subject of an earlier discussion of names.  It appears in ancient Ugaritic and other Northwest Semitic Features. (Huehinergard  p. 280)  EMAR has been discussed and treated at length by D. Arnaud, recherches au pays d'Astata: EMAR vol. 6, (Huehinergard p. xix)  

EMRON: EMER, EMERU, EMRU

In his epistle to his son Moroni, Mormon singles out Archentus, a Nephite commander, who along with other "choice" men lost his life in an intense battle with the Lamanies in the later part of the fourth century AD.  Two other's of military commanders were also mentioned, Luram and EMRON, all three singled out for their importance and personal friendship.  (Morm. 9:2; Largey p. 12)  The name appears in the Nephite record at about the end of the destruction of the Nephites.  It seems to have entered the Nephite reservoir of names form the Jaredite record because it is found in the Akkadian record. The name is found in the Akkadian Dictionary as EMRU 1, meaning "red'  and EMRU 11, meaning "swollen," both coming from EMERU.  (see EMER above).  (Black p. 72)                        

The suffix ending of -ON, seems to have been a Nephite addition to the ancient name of EMR- giving a Hebrew-Egyptian abbreviation for deity, in this case, Jehovah.

 ENOS:    

ENOS is a Biblical name, Genesis 4:26, but Mandel does not include that name in his WHO'S WHO IN THE TANAKH.  The name does not appear in the scanty portion of the Jaredite  record that we have, but no doubt was known to the Jaredites in a record they had equivalent to the Brass Plates.  He was the son of SETH, grandson of ADAM, and lived 905 years. (Moses 6:13-16)

ENOS was also the name given to a Nephite Prophet.  The Book of Enos, was the fourth book recorded on the SMALL PLATE S OF NEPHI.  It was ENOS who prayed fervently that the Nephite record would be preserved as an instrument of Salvation. (Enos l:17)  In our day that has been fulfilled. (Pinegar p. 48)  He was a prophet and record keeper, (Jacob 7:27), son of Jacob, and father of Jarom (544 to 420 BC). (Largey pp. 243-244)

EPHAH: GUR, KURRU, IMER

This name is complex and has an interesting history, it occurs in a quote from Isaiah  "5: 10. Yea, an acre of vineyard shall yield one bath, and the seed of a HOMER shall yield an EPHAH," (2 Nephi 15;10) as a weight and measure designation.  However,  the link to the Jaredites is clear because the term EPHAH is a measure of capacity and is very ancient.  "a. Homer (Hebrew for Homer; in Akkadian IMER),  'a donkey load'; was commonly used throughout Asia south of Anatolia [Turkey]  and west of Euphrates in the 2nd millennium , called a gur ...Akkadian,  kurru,  and thereafter as a measure for cereals. The homer is older than the kor...Sumerianthe Half Homer (Hebrew  letek) ...was a measure of Barley...the letekmay be a Phoenician measure...there  being 10 ephahs to the HOMER, which is equivalent to about 220 litres... Ephah ...Egyptian,  ipt,  is the name of a vessel large enough to hold a person."  (Wood  p. 1637)   So one ephah was equal to 22 litres or 4.84 a gallons.  NOTE:  We have had to go back to ancient Sumerian, then Akkadian,  Phoenician, Egyptian and Hebrew, in that order, to get the details of an ephah.  It was very ancient, and maintained its integrity as a measure over vast trade lanes and time.  As traders, the Jaredites no doubt had their weights and measure instruments by which they conducted their trade, they would have been aware of the systems, weights and measures of their day, they seem to have so been involved in and were very familiar with an ephah.  "Incidentally, the fact that Nephite weights and measures bear Jaredite names indicaes long,culgtrual overlap." (Nibley p. 245)           

EPHAH was picked up in later years in Hebrew as both a female and a male name. Mandel claims it has Hebrew Origins, but the above references indicate it was ancient and did not originate in Hebrew.  In Hebrew the meaning is "darkness.' (Mandel p. 151)  EPHAH was the name of a grandson of Abraham. About the 18th century BC,  Midian, the son of Abraham and Keturah had a son they called EPHAH,  along with three other sons.  Midian was the fourth of six sons Keturah bore Abraham.  (Hillyer   p. 849)  It was Median, son of Keturah, last wife of Abraham,  who gave the priesthood and the endowments to Moses.

EPHAH was also the name of a concubine of an important member of the tribe of Judah, Caleb, she bore him three sons. (l Chronicles 2:46; Mandel p. 152)

EPHAH was also the name of a son of Jahdai of the tribe of Judah, he had five brothers.  (l Chronicles 2:47; Mandel p. 152)

EPHAH  contains the core prefix EPH-  which occurs in at least a dozen Hebrew names in the TANAKH. (Mandel pp. 151-153)  It is also in the name of the EPHOD  worn as a girdle by the High Priest.  (Numbers 34:23)

EPHRIAM:

EPHRIAM is the name of the great tribe being gathered out from all the world   in these last days: EPHRIAM has the keys.   But who would have thought that it was so ancient that it was used before 2250 BC as a place name for a hill in America by immigrants from ancient Mesopotamia?     

It was surprising  to find the name of EPHRIAM in the Book of Ether as the place name for a hill of iron ore:  "7. ... KIB dwelt in captivity...Kib begat Shule in his old age, while he was yet in captivity...8...Shule was angry with his brother...Shule waxed strong...became mighty...[in] strength ...[and] in judgment. 9. ...he came to the hill EPHRIAM, and he did molten out of the hill, and made swords out of steel for those who he had drawn away with him...he armed them with swords he returned to the city Nehor, and gave battle unto his brother Corihor, by which means he obtained the kingdom and restored it unto his father Kib." (Ether 7:7-9)  Some sort of very rich iron ore was present in the hill EPHRIAM, hematite and magnetite are such rich iron ores.  In the future we will be discussing the names NEHOR and KIB, CORIHOR was discussed in an earlier part to this series.  Besides a hill of iron ore  in ancient America, Asenath, wife of Joseph, called her two sons MANASSAH and EPHRIAM.  Later EPHRIAM replaces Ruben as the birthright tribe.  Biblically, and for the world as a whole, EPHRIAM was to play a great role,  the Book of Mormon is all about Ephriam and his relatives. Today, it is mostly Ephriam who are being gathered out of all the Nations.  They have all of the keys to all of the ordinances.  The name EPHRIAM has been around a very long time, and today it has worldly renown. 

THE TW0 STICKS:

The Lord charged Ezekiel to write on two sticks, one for Judah and the other for Joseph, the stick of Ephraim,  and making them one in his hands. (Ezek. 17:15-17)  When asked by the people what joining the two sticks meant he prophesied that a time would come  when the divided kingdoms of Israel would be gathered and reunited under one Messianic King and would be dwelling in  righteousness. (Ezek. 18-20)  The Book of Mormon and the Bible are the two sticks, and certainly under the present dispensation they are joined together and are emphatically gathering out of the Nations the Lord's people, they are together the witness of Christ in fulfillment of ancient expectations.  The Lord prepared the two great records to do His  marvelous work and wonder  (Largey p. 236) that is now represented by the increasing temples that dot the earth.  We are in the middle of it now, and soon the true Messiah testified by the TWO STICKS will come to reign.

ESROM: ESRUM, ESRUIU, ESRA                                                            

"8. And now, in the days of the reign of Omer he was in captivity the half of his days...he  begat sons and daughters among whom were ESROM and Coriantumr; "  (Ether 8.4-6) ESROM was listed as No.17 in the king line from Jared. (Largey p. 431)   ESROM  was the son of a King and a military commander who helped restore his father to his kingdom.  The name has the root ESR- as a prefix-, and -OM as a -suffix.  In Akkadian the name is  ESR- (ESR-)  and since there is no O the most used vowel is U, the ending M is an Akkadian mimation ending, and in Akkadian the name appears as ESRUM,  (Black p. 83) which is the phonetic vocalization of the name given in the Book of Mormon p. 533.  In Akkadian the name means a "tenth." (Black p. 83)  By using  an A as the vowel, in Akkadian you get ESRA, which means "twenty." (Ibid p. 83)  Not long after Akkadian times, the Assyrians ruled the region. In the Neo-Assyrian personal name list there is the name ESRAIU it was transmitted down and modified to mean "born on the twentieth day." (Radner p. 83)   But ESROM, is another name that seems peculiar to  Jaredite times  and was not transmitted down into other Semitic languages. How could Joseph Smith know that some names had only a small window in time when they were used and were not transmitted down or taken up by successors in time? Because these were real records of real people.                                                                         

A lot of names that are encountered in these studies seem to have a prior history but were probably available on the record Moroni refers to going back to the days of Adam and down to the account of the tower. Those were ancient records from which Moroni  made his selections for  the Book of Ether. (Ether l.4-6) Many of which were transmitted through the Book of Ether into the Book of Mormon.

ETHEM:

ETHEM appears in the Jaredite record near the end of the account Ether was keeping of himself and his genealogy, he was the fourth generation from ETHEM, and the last of his people.  Ether was ETHEM'S  great- grandson.  ETHEM  is listed as No. 41 from Jared in the king list. (Largey p. 431)  After more than 2200 years and a tremendous history, it all came down to a lone and disappointed lonely man, looking over the violent death of his people and expecting to be translated. 

ETHEM is listed in Moroni's leadership lineage as a king who reigned in wickedness, despite the simultaneous ministry of many unnamed prophets who proclaimed and repeated the Lord's covenant for the Promised Land: "that the Lord would utterly destroy them from off the face of the earth except they repented of their iniquities." (Ether 11:12)  Ether recorded the absence of their repentance and rejection of the covenant. Ether was the last of the Jaredite prophets (Ether l:8) and lived to see the promised destruction.  (Pinegar p. 39)  Someone ought to write a book called:  THE LAST JAREDITE! (Largey p. 431) 

ETHER:  ETH-,  ETHNAN, ETHNI, ETHON, ETH-BAAL,

ETHER was the son of Coriantor and last prophet among the Jardites.  He and Coriantumr, the last king, were the last Jaredites after the horrific wars of destruction. Coriantumr went on to be found by Mulekites and die of his wounds nine months later.  Ether surmised he was going to be translated and simply vanishes from the ancient scene.

ETHER wrote the final Jaredite record consisting of 24 plates, we assume they were gold. (Ether l:l-6). Moroni said the plates were called the  BOOK OF ETHER,  Moroni selected material from those 24 plates to provide the present BOOK OF ETHER.  (Ether 1:2)  ETHER was a direct descendent of Jared, who helped lead a small group of faithful people from the tower of Babel to the new world. So we have Moroni's abridgement of ETHER'S record which essentially was a record of his royal or king lineages with some history, but  with some gaps in it. (Largey p. 252)

In Chapter l, Ether explains  "why neither the brother of Jared nor his children are ever named. (We are not even told how many sons he had, though Jared's own sons are listed by name..the brother of Jared is by all odds the most important character in the book.  It is of course 'he that wrote this book'  [meaning Ether], is a direct descendant of Jared (Ether l:2, 32), and not of Jared's brother, and is giving this history of his own line only."  (Nibley p. 159) The implication is, Ether knew there was another record that contained all we would want to know about Jared's prophet brother, and he need not repeat it in his history. Someday we will have that record.   

ETHER prophesied boldly he "could not be restrained because of the Spirit of God which was in him." (Ether 12:2) "Great and marvelous were the prophecies of Ether." But few were given in the present record. (Ether 13:13) He warned the people from "light to dark" to repent. From sunup to sundown; from "can see to can't see."   He taught the Jaredites about the power of faith and hope. (Ether 12:3-4)  His visions included face to face conversations with Christ,  the  sacred history of Mankind, the days of Christ, events that concerned the biblical Jerusalem, and the future New Jerusalem on the American continent. (Ether 13:1-11)   But he was rejected and cast out.  His prophecies of utter destruction were fulfilled, hiding in a cave, he ventured out to see the destruction in progress. (Ether 13:13-15) 

To the last King Coriantumr, he said he and his household would, if they repent, retain his kingdom and his people would be spared, otherwise they should ALL be destroyed.  Coriantumr's pathological rejection of Ether's call to repent, the absence of love of family and his people, and intentions, even an effort, to kill Ether, the appointed prophet of God, and overwhelmed by his selfish self interests and extreme ego, led to exactly that, total loss. How tormented he must have been during the nine months he survived, to realize what he had brought on his family, people and himself; what had happened was exactly as Ether had said it would; proving Ether a true prophet, and piercing his own heart with the knowledge he had lost all, and even greatly offended God by trying to kill His prophet.   He must have died in great despair and regret. It was too late. ETHER completed his writings, and then with foreknowledge, hid them in such a place they would be found by the people of Limhi, and Mosiah the prophet who would end up translating them for his people. (Ether 15:33; Mosiah  8:6-9; Largey pp. 252-254)

 The core prefix or element, of the name ETHER is ETH-.  In the Akkadian records that are available that prefix, ETH-, does not appear.  Some names in Hebrew, such a ETHON, ETHNAN and ETHNI, are claimed by Mandel to be of Hebrew Origin, but he also lists another name , where the prefixmeans  'with,' the name meaning 'with Baal.'  But Mandel notes that the name is that of the king of Sidon, an important Phoenician city kingdom. (Mandel pp. 160-161) Phoenicia was known in early  times as the sea coastal kingdoms of Tyre and Sidon, especially in the Levant when Israel entered the promised land, the Phoenicians were already there and were called by the Hebrews 'Canaanites.'  The smelter city of Ugarit, a coastal city of ancient Syria; today Ras Shamara,  (Curtis p. 18)  is referred to in previous entries. In fact the Hebrews were calling 'Canaanite'  by a name the inhabitants called themselves; 'Canaanite' means  'merchant, traders.'  (Hillyer p. 1223), which was what the ancient Phoenician were.  It is likely through trade contacts the Jaredites had picked up on the prefix, adding as a suffix an abbreviation, '-ER', for God, so the name ETHER could then mean,  'with God.'

Phoenicians had colonized the entire Mediterranean, had a port in the Canary Island, routes into the Indian Sea and shipped tin, copper and silver from Cornwall in England. And to the north on the coast from Sidon, there was a Phoenician Harbor and smelting facility which dates back into Akkadian times, known as UGARIT.  So it seems that the element ETH- found in the Book of Ether could go back into Akkadian times and the Hebrews adopted the element for their names after their entry into the promised  land  from ancient Phoenicians.  Their routes of trade were extensive. (Moscati p. 81) Moscati's book has extensive maps of Phoenician trade routes and settlements.  Recall, it was a Phoenician colony that brought Mulek to the New World. Mulek is a Phoenician name, there are many Phoenician names in the Book of Mormon. (See early entries in this web site)  Many more will be discussed in future entries.

EVE:  NIN-TI

EVE appears early in the Book of Mormon record where in describing the contents of the Brass Plates Nephi recorded: "And he beheld that they [The Brass Plates] did contain the five 'books of Moses,' which gave an account of the creation of the world, and also of Adam and Eve, who were FIRST MAN and FIRST WOMAN,  our first Parents." (I Nephi 5:11)  It is in the Book of Abraham that we get an important doctrinal declaration concerning Adam and Eve: Abraham writing about the rights to the priesthood and how these rights were conferred down to him from the fathers "from the beginning of time, yea, even from the beginning, or before the foundation of the earth, down to the present time, even the right of the FIRST BORN, or THE FIRST MAN, who is ADAM, or FIRST FATHER, through the fathers unto me."  It is clearly evident from this that Mother and Father in heaven gave birth to the immortal body of ADAM, he was the  FIRST BORN, on this earth, THE FIRST MAN, on this earth, THE FIRST FATHER, on this earth when he became mortal.  He was placed in the GARDEN OF EDEN, as a mature young man.  The doctrine requires the very same origin and history for EVE.  She shows up in the garden as a mature young women. They are our first PARENTS. (Abraham l:3) Do we find evidence for such a doctrine in ancient sources?  See below.

The Book of Mormon confirms the biblical account of EVE being tempted by the serpent in the garden of EDEN and hath consequences that followed her purposeful transgression.  The Book of Mormon clarifies that the serpent in the Genesis narrative was the devil, "the father of all  lies," Lucifer.  (2 Nephi 2:18-19; Gen. 3:4-3, 223; Largey p. 253)

Adam had called his helpmate 'EVE' (Gen, 3:20); because she was the 'mother of all living' (HAY). Some would suggest it is an archaic form of hayya,"living thing,' the LXX takes this view, translating it in Gen. 3.2 by Zoe, (life), others note a similarity with Aramaic hiwya, 'seprent', with which is connected a Phoenician (possibly serpent) deity, hwt, but as with  is and issa nothing beyond a formal assonance appears to be required by the text.  (Douglas p. 487)  This is keeping with the use in Akkadian of the prefix or ancient root,  Hay,  where HAYANI means 'child, and HAYALTU  means ' woman in labour." (Black p. 113) The name woman occurs twice only in the OT (Gen.3:20 4:1), the word 'women 'being more commonly used. In the LXX and NT it appears as Heua (Eua in some MSS, which passes to Heva in the Vulgate, and thence to EVE in the EVV. That is how we got EVE. (Douglas p. 487)    

There is an ancient SUMERIAN (pre- Akkadian) account concerning the god Enki, [the first man]. "He finds himself suffering from a series of ailments. Thus, when he says "my rib (ti)  hurts me" , ( ti written with a logogram, one of whose AKKADIAN values was silu,  'side, rib'), he is told that a goddess, Ninti,  (Lady of the rib'),  has been BORN just for him.  In Ancient SUMERIAN,  Nin-ti can equally mean "lady who makes live [or life]". (Douglas p. 487)  Or who will bring about all life.  Looking closely at this account we can find that the ancients believed that the first man and the first woman were BORN, and they were considered to have status as GOD and GODDESS.  The  account confirms a link to AKKADIAN, and informs us that the Jaredites had ancient records that reflected details found only in Mormon scripture and scared ceremonies today.  Douglas suggests the account "may be that this reflects in some way a common original narrative with the Genesis account."  (Douglas p. 487)  If he knew the restored gospel he would realize how right he is.  Here we affirm the link to ancient Akkadian and even ancient Sumerian, and find that Joseph Smith got it right the first time!

EZIAS:

EZIAS is a non-biblical prophet, most likely his record and testimony of the redemption upon faith in Christ was obtained by Nephi from the Brass Plates. As recorded in Helaman, Nephi said to his companions in Zarahemla:  "And now I would that ye should know that even since the days of Abraham there have been many prophets that have testified of these things." (Hel.  8:19) As evidence of the coming of the Son of God.  Then Nephi named five prophets (in addition to Moses) whose testimony confirmed the mission of the Lord:  Zenos, Zenock, EZIAS, Isaiah, and Jeremiah.  (Pinegar p; 50)  None of the particulars of the life of EZIAS are given, only his firm and personal testimony of the Savior. (Pinegar p. 50)  Abraham  lived until about 1877; he lived l75 years, during his life, he, Shem, Noah, and others of that time testified about Christ, his coming and his atonement.  Starting with Abraham, Nephi seems to list unknown prophets down to known prophets in chronological order.  It would seem from this that Zenos may have lived and testified during the time of Abraham, or not long after; then followed Zenock and third in that list was EZIAS, next followed Isaiah, about 820 BC, and then Jeremiah who was alive at the time Lehi left Jerusalem near about 600 BC. (Largey p. 257)  So there was about 1400 years between Abraham and Jeremiah, in which these other prophets may have lived and testified.

The Brass Plates were kept by members of the tribe of Manasseh, but they would not have been in place much before or about the time of Joshua  when the tribes of Israel were given their land of inheritance, after the translation of Moses.  Scribes of Manasseh would have appended their history onto a much more complete record they had back to Adam. Zenock and EZIAS could have been prophets to the  sons of Joseph sometime after the settlements in the Promised land.  It would be interesting to know when they lived and to whom they bore their testimony.

Based on what is found in Hebrew names, of which seven are found in the Tanakh, most having the meaning of the prefix EZ- of 'help.' In the name Ezekiel, the meaning of EZ is 'strength,' the suffix -iel, is a hypocoristicon for Elohim,  the meaning of EZEKIEL would then be  "strength [help] of God' so EZIAS most likely means 'strength of God.' (Mandel pp. 161-164)

EZROM

EZROM is a unit of SILVER, in the Nephite system of weights and measures. (Alma  11:15-19) The system has been studied by several serious students. Largey charts a consensus of the weights and measures employed.  On his chart EZROM is a unit or weight of silver that is equal in value to a unit of Gold call a SHUM (Alma ll:9) Alma indicates that another weight of gold, called a SHUN (Alma 11:5) is equal in value.  That quantity of gold or silver would purchase or trade for 8 SHIBLONS of barley or grain, equal to 4 MEASURES of barley or grain. (Largey p. 609)  Alma points out that the weights and measures developed by the Nephites were not after the manner of the Jews.  The Nephite system was not related to the Old Testament system.  It seems that the Nephite system may has been in progress or started when Lehi left Jerusalem and continued to be modified or codified until the time of Mosiah. (Alma 11:4)   The value  is relative.  One measure of grain was the equivalent of one day's pay for a Nephite Judge.  At today's values a Judge may get nearly $100 per hour, up to 500 per hour, or $800 to $4000 per day. When gold is worth  about  $1400 an ounce,  a judge today would get from .l  to  .4 of an                   ounce of gold per hour.  A number of studies have been made on Nephite Weights and Measures some make sense, others are highly speculative. (Largey p. 609-610)  Perhaps the most comprehensive and informative is the study by Welch. (Welch pp. 110-113)

                                                             BIBLIOGRAPHY

BERMANT, Chaim & Michael Weitzman, A Revelation in Archaeology- Ebla, Times Books,New York, 1979  

BLACK, Jeremy, & Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate,  A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian,  Harrassovitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2004

CURTIS,  Adrian, Ugarit, Williams B. Eerdmans, Publishing Company Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1985

DOUGLAS,  J.D., The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, PART 1, Intervarsity Press, Tyndale House  Publishers, Hodder and Stoughton, Sydney, 1980

HILLYER, N., The Illustrated Bible Dictionary Part 2, Hodder  & Stoughton, Sidney,  1980 HUELNERGARD, John, The Akkadian of Ugarit,  Harvard Semitic Series 34, Scholars Press,   Atlanta , Georgia, 1989

KLEINERMAN, Alexandra & David l. Owen, Analytical Concordance to the Garsana Archives,            CDL Press, Bethesda, Maryland, 2009

LARGEY, Dennis L., Book of Mormon Reference Companion,  Deseret Book Company, SaltLake City, Utah, 2003

NIBLEY, Hugh, Lehi in the Desert The World of the Jaredites, There Were Jaredites, FARMS,    Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah,  Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, 1988

MANDEL, David, Who's Who in Tanakh, Ariel Books, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2004

MOSCATI, Sabatino, The Phoenicians, Abeville Press, New York, 1988

PINEGAR, Ed.J.,  & Richard J. Allen, The Book of Mormon Who's Who, Covenant           Communications, Inc., American Fork, Utah, 2007

RADNER,  Karen, Ed. The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Vol. 1, PART 11: B-G,   University of Helsinki, 1999

SHAPIRO, R. Gary, An Exhaustive Concordnce of the Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants and Pearl of Great Price, Hawkes Publishing Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah 1977

WELCH, John W., & J. Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon, FARMS,  Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 1999

WOOD, Derek, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, PART 3, Inter-Varsity Press, Tyndale House      Publishers, Sydney, 1980

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