Dr. Einar C. Erickson
Ancient Document Mormon Scholar
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For example the Magi mentioned at the beginning of Mathew 2:1-12, it was sometimes thought that these Magi had learned of the birth of Christ from the books written by Seth. The way in which the Magi knew about the coming of Jesus attracted the attention of certain Christians.

TABLETS FROM MESOPOTAMIA AND EGYPT AND THE BOOK OF MORMON NAMES

PART 14

COM to the first CORIHOR

INTRODUCTION:

We continue with the recovery of names in the Book of Mormon  from tablets and inscriptions found in the MESOPOTAMIAN and  EGYPTIAN ancient cities at the time of the Jaredite departure, that have been translated and become  available, mostly in the last forty years. 

COM:  KUM, KOM

There were two kings named COM, the first was an early Jaredite King. Counting Jared, COM was listed as No. 21 by Moroni in the genealogy record given in the Book of Ether,  (Ether l:4-32; Largey pp. 430-433)  where he was identified as the son of a king named CORIANTUM.  At least fifteen generations later another king CORIANTUM also had a son he called COM. (Ether l:13; 10:31-11:3)  How did Joseph know that papponymy, repeating names in genealogical lines was common in early dispensations and ancient Mesopotamian history?  It is additional internal evidence that he had before him an authentic document. 

THE FIRST COM

EMER, one of the righteous kings, begat many sons and daughters, including the first CORIANTUM.  He anointed this son to reign in his stead.  EMER lived another four years and he saw peace in the land. He was a great man and was privileged  to see and know Jesus Christ, who he called THE SON OF RIGHTEOUSNESS, using a title CHRIST would use for himself some 2200 years later when CHRIST appeared to the Nephites. (3 Ne. 25:2) These kinds of consistencies and intricacies are all through the Book of Mormon that most readers do not pick up on. These provide internal evidence for the veracity of the Book of Mormon and its translator, the GREAT JOSEPH.  The Book of Mormon really requires some deep and careful reading and research to get the maximum benefit. CORIANTUM was also righteous and walked in the steps of his father, which could suggest that he too had a revelatory experience of the CHRIST! He built many cities and  did administer them in righteousness.  His wife died when she was 102 years old, but they had had no children, and he appeared to have had no others wives. In his old age he married a younger woman and she bore him sons and daughters and he lived until he was 142 years old. (Ether 9:21-24)  One of those sons was COM, who became king, and reigned for 42 years. This name is going to take us on an interesting journey.

This second  COM went to battle against king Amgid. At this time the Jaredites were split into two kingdoms, AMGID was king over the split off group. He does not seem to have been related to the genealogy of Jared. After many years of fighting  with his rival, king Com, AMGID was deposed, and COM gained "power over the remainder of the kingdom" (Ether 10:32).  During COM'S reign it was reported that he did not prevail against the 'robbers in the land'  the Gadiantons, although he fought "much" against them. Prophets came in the days of COM to call the people to repentance. After being rejected they fled to COM for protection and "prophesied unto COM many things; and he was blessed in all the remainder of his days." (Ether l:13; 20:31-11:3; Largey p. 46)

This  COM seemed to have had several wives, he begat HETH, and then other sons and daughters.  But in those days evil combinations were gaining power and influence. HETH embraced these secret plans of old.  These evil combinations went back to ENOCH, a son of CAIN.  It seems from ancient records now recovered, which will be discussed  when we get to the G in the alphabet; the order in which we are studying these names, that even the name GAD, or GADIANTON, a synonym for evil, has great antiquity. (Tavernier  p. 185)

Accordingly great wickedness was upon the face of the land.  Not much is more wicked than that a son would become so evil as to plan to kill his own father. (Ether 9:23-26)  "And it came to pass that he , [Heth] did dethrone his father, for he slew him with his own sword; and he did reign in his stead." (Ether 29:27)  HETH seems to have not been in line for the throne, but his feelings of covetousness were so great that he killed his own father to take the throne, apparently after some sort of great treachery, because he used his father's own sword to kill him. Prophets were sent and they were promptly killed bringing upon all the people the wrath of God. You don't kill prophets!  But they did, because HETH commanded them to do so. (Ether 9:29) Then  famines, draughts, horrible conditions came upon them and they were reduced to deeply heinous animalistic behaviors. (Ether 9:28-34)  HETH himself died from the famine. (Ether 9:10:l)  But I don't  think justice ended there.  It seems that about every other generation during those times were excessively evil. The Book of Mormon is filled with these short vignettes and stories. Whatever that say he is or was,  Joseph Smith was a master story teller and had many story outlines that could have been developed into captivating accounts.

Recall that in Akkadian there is no C, there is also no O.  So the name COM will not be found in that form.  In Akkadian and other Mesopotamia languages, Semitically related, K would be used in place of C, and U would generally replace O.  In the Akkadian dictionary we do, therefore, find KUM where the meaning is "to you" or "instead of"   (Black p. 166)  and it appears as a suffix in about sixteen names, some of which are more than just passing  interest.  Adding the ending or suffix for the feminine we get KUM-IRTU, which means "priestess.  With mimation, as often found in Jardites names, we get KUM-RU(M), which means "priest."  In Akkadian the name KUM-ARU means "white garment" and in the mimation form KUM-MU(M) the reference is to the "innermost room" of the shrine or temple, (Black p. 166)  lending to a conclusion that in some way the name is related to very sacred aspects of a religious life, possibly temple ceremonies.  KUM also has a clear significant cuniform sign. (Black p. 166)  Once again, we will turn to Egypt where in the past we have found most interesting data.

In the Neo-Assyrian dictionaries, we find the same form:  KUM, because in Assyrian, as in Akkadian,  there is no C nor O.  But we look to these later usages to confirm the Akkadian sources and a carryover of meanings or continued usage of certain names down through time.  In the Neo-Assyrian sources, so far there are only six names that have been found using the KUM- as a prefix. But the meaning persists.  In West Semitic and Aramaic the name KUM-URI means "priest."  There are other names having the prefix, originating in Akkadian or older origins, but  confirming the name was around when the Jaredites were abroad in the land, living there or passing through. The name carried religious intimations.  (Baker pp. 636-637)  But could there also be an Egyptian connection?  Because we have been finding or seeing an interesting connection between ancient Jaredite names and early Egyptian names and practices, and even though the name COM (KOM) is short, there may be some obscure linguistic link to the early Egyptian God Horus  such as was found when digging into the name COHOR.  (See PART 13 of this series)   

The Egyptians have  many Gods, one is KHONS HOR, an amalgamation of  HORUS son of RA, the 'living HORUS'  or  PHARAOH, and KHONS,  son of AMON, whose son the PHARAOHS were said to be; from the Eighteenth Dynasty onwards. "KHONS HOR was a  form particularly worshipped at OMBOS (KOM OMBO), SET'S  ancient cult centre...KHON was... said to have helped HORUS overcome SET [SETH]." (Ions p. 91)  Ions also had a photo of a statue of KHON HOR, a falcon headed body [the recognized form in inscriptions]  from the Twenty-second Dynasty, about  850 BC.  She also provided in her book a granite head of KHONS, as a representation of the moon-god and son of AMON and MUT, god and goddess in the Theban triad (father-mother-son) , [a retention of ancient doctrines] from the late Eighteenth Dynasty, showing him as a handsome young man, shaven, and bearing the royal crook-scepter.  (Ions p. 91)  So at different times in Egyptian history,  but beginning early with the construction of the cult center for Seth, the name  KOM and KOM OMBOS was common,   especially in and around the cult and temple and early history center of HORUS OF NEKHEN. (Hoffman p. 383)  Here KOM is a definite Egyptian name, a place name for a particular cult and ceremonial center. It is also a place name for the KOM OMBO PLAIN, where excavations started in the 1920's which is a great embayment of the Nile Valley, located on the east bank of the river in southern Upper Egypt where excavations started in the 1920's.  The KOM OMBO PLAIN was also the source of the finest, glassiest, cryptocrystalline stones use in the ancient lithic industry and was heavily exploited for trade throughout Egyptian History.  (Hoffman, 69, 79-83)  on the plain there is a village called Sebil, it gives its name to Sebilian flints found on the KOM OMBO. (Gardiner p. 377)  There is also a place name of KOM El-OMARI, near Halwan Egypt, and a place name in northern Egypt at ancient  Buto, KOM EL FARA'M.  Important Papyri were also found at KOM MEDINET CHURAB at the entrance to the Fayyum depression in northern Egypt.  A lot of ancient manuscript discoveries have been made there.

COM and KOM are the same, and definitely have a tie in with religious connections, which helps stimulate  the search for meanings. In the Jaredite history, the name COM persisted  more than 1500 years, perhaps nearly 2,000 years, and in Egypt, in the form KOM, it persisted about the same length of time. Of course Joseph had this all worked out,  so there would be no slip up here!  The trace of the Father-Mother-Son is especially present in the Nag Hammadi sources. (Giversen p. 73; D&C 76:223-37)  Which also tells of the Mother weeping for a son convicted for rebellion who was cast out heaven.  The history of the Cult Center of Set and the role Set played in ancient Egyptian History is a story to be told elsewhere. (See the CD on the APOCRYPHON, OF JOHN, THE SECRET BOOK OF JOHN)  More  details of the link between ancient Egypt and the time and history of the Jaredites will be continued in PART 15 of this series.

THE SECOND COM

A king named HEARTHOM, the son of a king called LIB, ruled following a time when the Jaredites seemed to have achieved a ZION condition  (Ether 10:28.)   HEARTHOM became king in the place of his father. (Ether 10:39.)  He reigned for 24 years, then the kingdom was taken away from him, but the record does not say how or by whom.  He was in captivity for 24 years then died. His  son HETH lived his entire life in captivity.  AARON, the son of HETH, also lived his life entirely in captivity.  AARON's living in captivity, like the others, apparently had his family with him in some kind of house arrest.  His son AMNIGADDAH also bore a son in captivity before he died. This son was CORIANTUM.  This is the second  CORIANTUM.  In captivity he also had a son, whom he named COM. (Ether 10:29-31)  Here again is papponymy, mentioned above, common in Jaredite and Nephite genealogies and Akkadian .  There were also two HETHS, one who was wicked and died by famine, (Ether 10:1) the other lived and died in Captivity (Ether 10: 31.) How did Joseph keep it all straight?  So, the second  COM, is listed as the son of CORIANTUM, who was the son of AMNIGADDAH.  In an earlier PART of this series the complex name AMNIGADDAH was discussed in detail.

The name COM has been discussed above.

COMNOR: KOM, NOR, NAR, NER, NIR, NUR, NURU(M), NURUM, NERU(M),             NEREBTU(M), NIRU, NARAM(M), NARBRU(M), NARBUTU, NARMABU(M),      NARAGE, NARUNU

Everything in the preceding names about COM applies to the name  COMNOR as well.  COMNOR  is also used as a place name for a hill near the valley of Shurr on which Coriantumr gathered his Jaredite armies and sounded a trumpet inviting Shiz's armies to battle. In the last of the three ensuing conflicts between Coriantumr and Shiz , Shiz in his unholy wrath swore he would kill Coriantumr or die trying. So fierce was the hand to hand fighting that all of the armies of both sides  were killed leaving only Shiz and Coriantumr barely standing, both grievously wounded, Shiz feinted from loss of blood and fell. Coriantumr had to rest on his sword for a short while, and then Coriantumr smote off the head of Shiz. During the battles  Coriantumr received so many "deep wounds" that once he "was carried away as though he were dead." After nearly 2000 years the world of the Jaredites and all its peoples came to an awful end. After killing Shiz, Coriantumr fainted.The Prophet Ether,  hiding nearby was prompted by the Lord to visit the scene of the battles to bear witness that the words of the Lord about the total destruction of the wicked Jaredites were fulfilled. When the Lord warned Coriantumr,  there were two million in his side of the kingdom, but because of their absolute evil they all died, they and all the people of Shiz,  (Ether 13: 2-3; 20-22) all on the slopes of the hill or pass named  COMNOR. Ether finished his record hinting he might be translated, and he probably was; or why mention it.  (Ether 14:28-34; Largey p. 121)  Coriantumr survived, but his wounds were fatal. He was found by an expedition of the people of Zarahemla, who took care of him, but he died within nine months. (Omni  1:21; Ether 13:21)                          

There are two elements in the name:  COM- and -NOR.  The element COM has great antiquity, and to repeat, everything discussed about COM  above and  in any name with COM in the prefix, applies here as well. The second element or the suffix is -NOR. In Akkadian, Neo-Assyrian, or related languages of Mesopotamia of about 2300 BC, there was no O, so we would be looking for a suffix equivalent to -NOR, which could be -NUR, -NER, -NIR, or -NAR.  We have learned the name COM has religious connotations,  so might not the suffix amplify the prefix?  If so, then we would be looking for elements or names having religious significance that might compliment the meaning of COM. The emphasis would, of course be on names that were old and not how the name may have been used or interpreted later.  So, let's look at the four possible alternates to the suffix  -NOR.

       NUR:  In the Akkadian Dictionary the prefix NUR- is used in at least fifteen names, the meaning being modified by the suffix. Most of them do not have the antiquity we are seeking. Two are identified with Old Akkadian:  NUR-U(M), with characteristic mimation common to the Jaredite record, with the meaning "Light" of deity, or king. (Black p. 258), a light that is more than just radiance. The translation of the names into English utilize the  (  )  around one or more of the letters to indicate on the clay tablet there was a cuniform marker that indicated the name was subject to mimation and the M or UM or even TUM, was to be added.  Then there is  NURUM,  still with a weak mimation, having the meaning "garment," but not just any garment.  Both in harmony with what is emerging and what is looked for.

     NER:  In the Akkadian Dictionary  the element NER is use in thirteen names, but only a few have some antiquity and mimation:  NERU(M), Old Akkadian meaning "to strike" in the sense of  defeating an enemy, (Black p. 250) and NEREBTU(M), also Old Akkadian meaning  "entrance or entry," to a valley or  mountain pass, not much to supplement the name COMNOR there, except it might apply when the name was used as a place name; a mountain pass?                                                       

     NIR:  There are at least twelve names in the Akkadian Dictionary  that use NIR as a prefix, but again, few of them have great antiquity,  but two have meanings that compliment the usage so far found in the name COMNOR.  One is NIRU, meaning "light" in harmony with one of the NUR names with the same meaning.  NIRU, found in the jungbabylonisch, with the meaning "prayer" harmonizes with the religious connotations associated with the name. (Black p. 255)           

     NAR: Of the choices of vowels to use, Akkadians preferred the use of  A, employing NAR as a prefix in more than 55 names. (Black pp. 241-243)  A number of these names can be identified as contributing to the understanding of the name  COMNOR:  from Old Akkadian NARAM(U)M has the meaning  of  "...love" associated with personal names of deities.  NARBU(M), with mimation, has the meaning "greatness" in the sense of deeds, feats, of the gods. NARBUTU, without mimation also has the meaning of "greatness" and NARMAKU(M), with mimation, meaning "washing" as in cultic, or religious rituals. (Black pp. 241-242).  All  these names are even more suggestive on a religious level that Mormon's can understand, the names  enhance the meaning of  COMNOR.  The implication is also there that the parents of COMNOR were more than just believers, underlying their choice of a name for a son was a since of deeply felt religious understandings; Gods and Temples are in the mists.  The antiquity, underlying  religious and ceremonial implications, and mimation, support all that has been claimed for the Jaredites and their history.  This is a triumph for the Book of Mormon, the Great Joseph, and the ancient compiler and translator, Moroni. 

     NAR was also the name for a deity in early times, of the late third millennium BC, and is found among Elamitic names, such as NARAGE, but with the meaning unknown.  Decipherment  of ELAMITIC is still in progress, their land areas were southern Persia, their capital was the ancient city of SUSA, of biblical fame, where Esther saved the Jews. Theirs was a long lasting kingdom, lasting until they were conquered by the Assyrians about 640 BC.  (Whitehouse pp. 167-168)  It is highly probable that the Jaredites, before leaving the Babylonian area, were involved, like Lehi, in extensive trade and mercantile  activities, because, as already  observed, some of the Jaredite names have peripheral connections with peoples way outside their boundaries. This could be one of them, and another could be the name NARANU, considered as possibly a hypocoristicon also based  on the name of a deity, as just mentioned.  NAR-, with a suffix of    -ANU, would have a meaning of  "or," also "of" as in "of Anu."  ( Baker 2001,  pp. 930-931)  From the Jaredite names, some future philologist and linguist will track down these clues and hints of regional and even larger influence on the Jaredites.  It is from the names that we deduce the Jaredites lived somewhere east of the Tower of Babel which was near or part of Babylon, and near the ancient  kingdom city of Kish, as discussed in earlier parts of these studies, and then they made their exodus from the region of Kish to the Upper Euphrates and the regions to the northwest and west picking up names along the way that they incorporated into their language, and, or, they acquired some of the names from contacts with, beyond the boundary people, in the trade and mercantile activities. Then the names appeared in their record at later dates.  When the Lord commanded them to depart it did not seem to be such a horrifying experience for them, as if they were used to traveling and prepared for it like Lehi was.

CORIANTON:  KARI, KARIA, ANTON,  ANTUM, ANU(UM)  KAR, KARI-BU, NTN

Among the sons of the great prophet ALMA,  in fact the youngest son, was CORIANTON.  He had accompanied his father and others on a mission to the Zoramites.  He was carrying a baggage of questions and doubts.  Imagine Alma's consternation when his young son became totally distracted by the Harlot Isabel and forsook his ministry.  His actions greatly damaged the missionary effort. Alma told his son "when they see your conduct they would not believe in my words." (Alma 19:11) A sad, sad thing for a renown prophet to say to his son. Chapters 39 to 42 of Alma records the efforts of Alma to bring his young son to repentance , expressing his tender concern with his great knowledge and spiritual power to help a dear one who had fallen in error. The great spiritual doctrines Alma taught his son nullified the rationalizations raised by Corianton.   (Alma 39:3-6, 40: l, 41:1, 30)  CORIANTON responded so well to his father's persuasions that later Alma sent him forth again to "declare the Word" (Alma 42:31).  CORIANTON became an example of a repentant person who achieved great spiritual heights. After the death of his brothers Helaman and Moroni, rather than occupy the position his father had reached, he choose instead to emigrate northward by sea carrying provisions to those who had gone north before. (Alma 65:3-10).  Can we presume from this final action of CORIANTON that there were communications between those who had gone north before with those who had stayed behind? (See the series in this web site THEY DID BURY THEIR WEAPONS IN 2009-2010)

Among  doctrines Alma taught his son was the seriousness of immorality (Alma 30:5-6) applicable especially to our time of rampant immorality with insights on how to remain                morally pure. He specified the necessary steps to true repentance, and the eternal consequences for the wicked as well as the righteous.  Alma affirmed the antiquity of the gospel, (Alma 39:15-19)  Finally, in the Book of ALMA appears the PLAN OF SALVATION, truths about the resurrection, the spirit world, and foreordination, Eden and the fall and redemption (Alma 42:2-6; 6-14)  Alma taught how effective it is to change a wayward child by teaching him gospel doctrines.  I wonder, today, if parents are well enough informed to teach their children the inexhaustible gospel. (Alma 31:5) It scares me.   

ELEMENTS IN THE NAME CORIANTON                   

The name has the elements  COR-, CORI,  -I-,  -AN,  -ANT, -ON, -ANTON, combined into a compound name which, with the core elements, CORI-ANT, or CORIAN-T which form the core for four prominent Book of Mormon names:   CORIANTUMR. and several others as well, such as KORIHOR, varying only by the endings of -ON, OR, UM, UMR, which are all hypocoristicon  or abbreviations to form the suffixes for the names, with the characteristic mimation. In the case of KORIHOR, one is led back into the HORUS influence and history, and in keeping with the loss of C in their languages the substitute of  K for the C sound was made. All of this clearly demonstrates this is not a book of fiction with fictional names.                                                                             

The suffix -ANTON may be related to ANTUM, with mimation making the difference.  ANTUM is an old name, its meaning having been lost. (Black p. 19)  The element AN- in ANTUM may also be related to ANU(UM) in Old Akkadian,  meaning "the god of heaven" (Black p. 19)  Without a  C  and an O, the Akkadian dictionary does approach or provide, the core element CORI- with the element KARI- and in the name KARI-BU the meaning is "one who blesses" or "a priest"  which would be in harmony with the intent in the name CORIANTON.  (Black p. 149)  The element KARI is also found in similar names KARIBU and KARIBU(M),  the latter with ancient mimation, found in Akkadian, means "prayer, blessing," or "be greeted." (Black p. 148)  Again, containing religious connotations.  

The suffix element ANTON, contains the consonant element NTN, which in Phoenician, the ancient sea people,  is associated with the meaning "gift." (Benz p. 364)  The meaning could then be "he who has the gift to bless" or "He is the priest who blesses."

Could, on the journey from the area of ancient KISH to the Atlantic ocean, the Jaredites have  encountered coastal areas of the Mediterranean? (See THE ANCIENT KINGDOM OF KISH, 4 Aug. 2005 in this Web Site)  The name certainly is not gibberish, and we know so little about the lands, waters,  and peoples passed over or encountered on their journey that even a small stretch or connection is worth pursuing.   By the time the Jaredites would have traveled westward from the Hittite empire there were well developed Overland trade routes from the Balkans to Spain. Sumerian merchants were also traveling both north and south clear to the Harappan societies in the Indus Valley, and around the Mediterranean, trading in sesame oil, textiles, leather, jewelry, copper, ivory, pearls, gems, silver, cedar, gold, and tin.  Too little is known about this period of time, eventually more will be known and a great deal of light will be shed on Jaredites times and places. (Kagan p. 34) The Egyptian influence remains to be fully established for the predecessors of Mentuhoep 11  of Egypt.  By the time the Jaredites began their epic journey westward, the Egyptians had been trading for two centuries along the Mediterranean and the Near Eastern cultures, importing cedar, gold, ebony, ivory, cattle, slaves and exporting linen, gold, leather, wheat and lentils. The great pyramids of Giza were already standing tall and overwhelming. (Kagan p. 30)

Their journey could be narrowed down in time in more detail when a reliable date is finally obtained of the tremendous drought that occurred between 2300 and 2200 BC.  Their journey was not famine nor drought nor great wind or war driven, if such were encountered they did not record them; so they moved westward in between these weather and historical events that shaped the world for others, they moved having been directed to leave by God.  (Nibley p. 262)  For many weather is the driving clock of history, for others it is the direct command of God, God must be acknowledged in all things. Argue with Him on that, not me. But evidence is accumulating that there may have been a distinct possibility of a trading and merchant association within the Jaredites that was widespread in their contacts.  Future studies in progress on other names may support this with  more certainty. What can be extracted from the names will be included as we go along.

ANTON would have been a familiar element in names in the early Greek and Aramaean regions where the Mycenaeans and Minoans were building their empires. Certain suffix endings would also signify gender:  ANTON-Y, a male, recall MARK ANTONY (ANTHONY) .  ANTON-IA, a female, recall the FORTRESS ANTONIA, in the northeast corner of the Temple Mount  where Christ was flogged and battered and crowned with thorns. The Romans had documented and prepared city and village locations in their great  ITINERRARIUM  ANTONINI. Note their use of mimation. (Lipinski p. 324) There is still much to learn about all of these in terms of the life and times of the Jaredites. We are taking little baby steps trying to peer through the fog of ancient history.  But the Book of Mormon has always been way ahead of recovered history. 

CORIANTON has the -ON ending which is an authentic ancient Semitic and later especially used in Hebrew, it was characteristic of a Hebrew hypocoristicon, abbreviation or nick name, usually dropping a theophoric name component, and was found frequently in the old world.  (Bezalel p. 112)  Especially noted in the Elephantine Archives, the subject of one of the early CDs. 

CORIANTON was probably born about 100 BC.,  his father Alma had been the keeper of the records.  Alma turned over the records to his eldest son, Helaman, and in the process summarized the content of the 24 gold plates of the Jaredites, especially the ancient oaths and practices of secret abominations , (Alma 37:21-20) , showing that he was thoroughly familiar with the Jaredite record and undoubtedly noticed the name he fancied to use for one of his sons.  The internal consistency of the Book of Mormon is always  maintained.  The name could not have appeared in the Nephite record until after Mosiah had translated it and Alma and read it.                                                                                          

LIMHI, third in a line of kings about 121 BC, had left Zarahemla about 200 BC. He had sent out an expedition of 43 men to find Zarahemla, but they got lost in the wilderness and had come upon the remains of the Jaredite civilization. (Largey p. 522) They had returned with 24 gold plates.  (Mosiah 8:8-9)  Limhi learned from Ammon that the Nephite  king, Mosiah, had special interpretive instruments, the Urim and Thummim, and a gift for interpreting languages (Mosiah 8:19, 21;28)  Mosiah, who was keeper of the records, had translated the plates. They were the record of the Jaredites.  Their last king, CORIANTUMR had been found by the people of Zarahemla, but died within nine months because of his wounds, about 180  BC.  (Omni 1:20-21)  Mosiah had turned over all the records to Alma, the son of Alma. (Mosiah 28:20) Alma had become very familiar with the plates and had singled them out when he turned over the  records to Helaman. (Alma 45)  So it appears that Alma had obtained the name for his son from the records of the Jaredites and the name CORIANTON had become part of the Nephite records.

CORIANTOR:  KARI, TOR

CORIANTOR was the son of MORON, a king during the last generations of the Jaredites; the wicked son of ETHEM. MORON obtained his father's kingdom, but due to the secret combinations lost  half of the kingdom, regained it, only to be overthrown spending the remainder of his days in captivity.  (Ether l: 8; 11:14-18; Largey p. 432).  CORIANATOR dwelt all his days in captivity and died there. During CORIANTOR'S days prophets came and foretold their destruction, but they were rejected and killed because of the secret society and wicked abominations that prevailed. . CORIANTOR was the father of the prophet ETHER . (Ether l:7; 11:18-23)  The great prophet Ether was born in captivity, but not much is known about his youth.     

Again, the prefix name element is CORIAN-, the suffix is -ANTOR or TOR.   All of the discussion above on CORI-  or CORIA-. apply to the name CORIANTOR.  The discussion of the Akkadian name KARI-, also applies.   The element -AN is found in the Akkadian Dictionary and could have functioned as an ending to the name CORIAN. The element  -AN has many usages and meanings, probably the most used one is "to, for," (Black p. 16) with one meaning of "to bless, or a priest,"  having a religious connotation.  The ending TOR, is not found in Akkadian because there is no O. The consonant ending would be -TR which is found in Phoenician but without a meaning being given (Benz p. 461), though found in many inscriptions.   The element appears also as TURI and TURA,  where the TOR is a hypocoristicon based on TURU, "to return, retreat," which suggests the name CORIANTOR could have the meaning "the priest who returns to bless" or "whose blessing returns." ( Baker 2011, p. 1336) During their journey to the sea, if the Jaredites got anywhere near the coast of the Mediterranean they could have picked up on some of the other  ancient language's names and endings.  Studies on some future names in this series may confirm these possibilities.  

 CORIANTUM:  KORI, TOR, TURI, TURA, TURU,

There were two men with this name in the Book of Mormon.

The first CORIANTUM was an early Jaredite King (Ether 1:27)  The name contains the core name CORIAN as discussed above under the name CORIANTON.  It is the suffix, -TUM or ending, that needs some comment as it can change the meaning or expand the meaning of the name.  In this case the suffix is -TUM illustrating the use of mimation again confirming the antiquity of the name. We referenced Nibley on this in our previous discussion. - TUM has an even greater antiquity than some of the other endings.  It is found in the Akkadian dictionary as TU(M). The (M) indicates that in the cuniform text there was an indication to use mimation and the ending would be TUM. It has the meaning of "INCANTATION." The implication  is that it is a formulaic recitation, a ceremonial usage adding, again, the religious connotations found with this series of names.  As such it goes back to ancient SUMERIAN. ( Black p. 408)  It is an old usage and confirms the antiquity of the name and the reality of the Jaredites.

 It is necessary to be alert to  PERIPHERAL AKKADIAN, an offshoot of the Akkadian language used as the lingua franca of the Near East during the second millennium BC, and                          dialects that developed over time in adjacent areas.  One of the important adjacent areas stretched from Egypt, south of today's GAZA area,  to the interface of Akkadians with Hittite  and Hurrian cultures, on the north and northwestern areas, now Turkey, briefly discussed under the name CHEMISH.  This area was later to be called the AMURRU KINGDOM.  (Izre'el p. 11) It was a contested area for centuries, with the Egyptians and Hittites and other going back and forth at each other.  It was the means of permitting Hittite and Egyptian influence, foreign linguistic systems and elements, to impact on Akkadian along its western periphery where we find some of the Jaredite names authenticated. On the south there were Babylonian dialects and on the east there were Assyrian dialects imposing influence on Akkadian. There were sharp distinctions and two main chronological text-groups  on middle Akkadian. The earliest texts were from the El-Amarna Archive, (Egypt)  and the Generals's Letter, also Egyptian,  before the changes were noticed, and later texts, such as the Pendisemnni -letters from Boghazkoy (HITTITE) and texts found at Ugarit (Phoenician),  (Izre'el p. 60).  All reflecting the presence or absence of certain features by the long and important contact with Egyptian and Hittite presence on the western, southwestern, and northwestern boundaries of the Akkadian empire. This is important in making the interpretations that are possible in this study.  For example the term MI-RI-IS-TUM, in AMURRU,  meaning 'request,' (Izre'el p. 60), and LI-TU(TUM), 'may he return ,' (Izre'el p. 43) demonstrate  the extremely common usage of mimation endings of the -UM and -TUM elements, a very common feature at that time and in Akkadian.   But one can dig deeper still!

In the detailed work on AMORITE (AMURRU) names by Gelb there are page after page of names with the mimation endings of -UM,  or -TUM. (Gelb pp. 482-523)  In fact, an astute  critic of Joseph would have had a hay day had there been an absence of names with endings of -UM or -TUM in the Jaredite record, it would have been a grievous omission. I was literally stunned by what I was finding in the ancient records, it was enough to make your hair stand on end.  And it doesn't end there, the same abundance of mimation endings, particularly -UM and -TUM are found in the tablets from EBLA, where again there are page after page of names with the elements. (Pagan pp. 313-353)  The same is found in the tablets from MARI. All were contemporaries with the Jaredites.  But they gradually ceased to use these endings, mimation in general disappeared, not long after the Jaredites had reached the western hemisphere.  How could Joseph, without the intervention and inspiration from Diety have incorporated names with these endings and other mimations so seamlessly into the Book of Mormon with excessive papponymy.  It also tells us that the Jaredites had more than a casual contact with the peoples in the western periphery of the AMURRU-AKKADIAN EMPIRE. More details of these influences will be taken up in future studies, sufficient to note that the names in the Jaredite Record have elements found in the chronological time period and the related Akkadian languages at the time of the Jaredites. Something we can assume the Great Joseph was totally unaware of.  (See Tell Amarna in Egypt and the Book of Mormon, 15 Sept. 2005, and the series on Ancient EBLA and MARI  in this web site)  

Notice the mimation, -UM, in the two items from AMURRU.  In the Akkadian dialect of AMURRU, MIMATION is INDICATED at WORD-FINAL POSITIONS, e.g. - (TU(TUM). In accordance with the contemporary core Akkadian dialects, mimation has been retained when followed by a consonant initial enclitic or suffix or ending,  especially noted in the name CORIAN-TUM-R, The next name in this series; discussed below. The consonant -R is added to the mimation, as an enclitic or final suffix. (Ize'el pp. 43-45)  Mimation in the word-final position was gradually dropped within several hundred years after the Jaredites had passed through the northern Akkadian region.  But the Jaredites did not know this, and since this is only a recent linguistic recovery, neither did Joseph. The Jaredites never did go back to Mesopotamia,  so they never knew about the changes that were occurring there. They and the Nephites after they found the record of Ether  continued to use the mimation throughout their history down to nearly 50 BC. In the old world  mimation was retained longer after A vowels than after either I or  U, then it almost entirely disappeared.  There will be more to say on this later in this series. 

As noted above, the core name CORI or CORIAN suggests a reference to a 'priest', so the meaning of the name could be 'the priest who gives the ceremonial  recitation,' with reference to a specific recitation.  Some non-Mormon scholars suggest that this is an oblique reference to Jehovah who is the  High Priest who gives the ceremonial recitation, such as at the last Supper. JEHOVAH  IS THE HIGH PRIEST!  The Jaredites are considered orthodox in their religion representing in part the Dispensation of Noah which lasted well into the time of Abraham. We can expect religious nuances of the temple and other great doctrines of the gospel.

The element  CORI,  has its Akkadian form  KORI, in the name KORIHOR (Alma 30:12) , suggesting the languages had been confounded about the time the Jaredites left in order for them to pick up names that differ in the usages of certain letters.  But this will be explored more in the future.

The first CORIANTUM was appointed king by his father EMER, walked in the steps of his father and built many mighty cities and did administer that which was good unto his people in all his days.  CORIANTUM , lived to be 142 years old. (Ether l:28; 9:21-25).  He lived more than ten  generations after Jared.  Long after the Mesopotamian cultures stopped using mimation. The Jaredites never ceased using mimation. 

 CORIANTUM  

The second CORIANTUM  was the name of a Jaredite more than 25 generations after Jared,  near the waning years of the history of the people. (Largey p. 431) These names are another example of papponymy.

 Bazelel Porten suggest that the  -UM ending, a common West Semitic suffix, (e.g. AMURRU) is a hypocoristicon for Jehovah names, also suggested by the meaning of the name, (Porten p.  139-140).  Fourteen names in the Book of Mormon contain this ending showing extensive retention of mimation among the Jaredite names. The -um ending was also a prevalent hypocoristic suffix among the ancient MARI texts. MARI was a powerful ancient city at the time of the Jaredite exodus and epic journey.  (Huffmon p. 132)  (See also The Ancient City of Mari and the Book of Mormon, this web site: 29 June 2005)  

The second CORIANTUM was the son of AMNIGADDAH.  The name AMNIGADDAH was extremely interesting and was discussed in detail in a previous study.  This  CORIANTUM lived all the days of his life in captivity (Ether l:14;  10:31)  The elements that make up the name have been discussed above.

CORIANTUMR:  CORIAN, ANTUM, CORIA,  NTM

The first CORIANTUMR was an early Jaredite. (Ether 8:4) about six generations from Jared. We do not know the size of the original colony, or what records they brought with them.  It seems therefore that over the years without more input from other peoples many names were used over and over again, and the same processing of names and making- up names seemed to have persisted down until the last days of the people.  From about 100 names in the Book of Ether we are trying to make an historical analysis that may be distorted in some ways, but supported again and again as we explore the names available.  

The unusual ending or suffix of TUMR draws our attention. 

The second CORIANTUMRwas a Jaredite king, the last Jaredite survivor,  other than the prophet Ether. (Omni 1:21)  He was a warrior rather than a diplomat, and was extremely well versed in the arts of war and all the cunning of the world. (Ether 23:26)  His reign was during a time of intense crime, secret combinations, political upheaval, constant civil war, but a prophet was constantly calling him to change or otherwise suffer great loss.  He and his people were warned on several occasions. He was told by the Lord that unless he and his household repented, he alone would survive to witness the destruction of the entire Jaredite nation. (Ether 13:20-23)  They ignored the prophet, something you should never do, so the prophecy was fulfilled.  The Chronicle of CORIANTUMR is a series of  battles over many years, he was wounded severely, but survived. Finally he and his hateful opponent, Shiz, gathered their resources, all their people, CORIANTUMR's alone numbered two million, so at times the total opposing forces must have reached nearly five million. (Ether13:4-6)  Of these we have the names of less than  100, and most of these were descendants of Jared.  (Largey p. 431) These are the names we are mining for all we can get.

Shiz, the arch enemy of  CORIANTUMR was in relentless pursuit to kill him, fueled by the loss of his brother in battle and his desire to prove untrue a prophecy recorded by Ether (Ether 14:14)  What a futile life wasting effort, you do not prove a prophetic utterance untrue.  It took both parties four years to mass their people;  men, women and children, arm them and put them in place for the final battles. They had all lost the spirit of God.  Under the divine law of free agency, you can make any choice you want, but when you do, you also make the choice for the consequences of that choice.  In their case it was utter destruction. (Ether 15:9-22)   The battles were short but devastating, until  in the last hour only Shiz and CORIANTUMR were left barely standing, Shiz feinted from loss of blood,  CORIANTUMR barely had the strength to get to Shiz and behead him.  CORIANTUMR  was found fatally wounded by a contingent from Zarahemla, who took him in but he died within nine months. (Omni  1:21) Ether had prophesied that CORIANTUMR would witness that another people would receive the land for their inheritance.(Ether 13;21)  And they had arrived, and he had seen them, and he died.  The Jaredites had risen to the greatest of heights and descended to the greatest depths. The great lesson is obedience to divine law brings the greatest of blessings, but  disobedience brings the wrath of God. It is a real world  out there, at any time  in history,  and it is plainly evident there are those who choose wisely and there are those who don't.  The results either way are all the same. 

The third CORIANTUMR was an apostate Nephite, commander of Lamanite  forces about 51 BC. (Hel 1:15)  As a Nephite defector he was esteemed for his 'strength and...great wisdom,' by the Lamanite king Tubaloth, who led Lamanite armies against the Nephites. (Hel l:16) His wisdom must have been defective for him to lapse  into an apostate condition.  CORIANTUMR boldly captured the Nephite capital city of Zarahemla but was subsequent slain in battle as the Nephites reclaimed their cities (Hel l:15-33). CORIANTUMR adds yet another name to the list of hardened dissenters whose defection to the Lamanites proved deadly for the Nephites and a disaster for themself.  (Largey p. 216)                                     

These three individuals with the same name is another example of papponymy.  The name no doubt came from the Jaredite plates found a century and half before and translated by Mosiah and abridged by Moroni.  The -M or -MR suffix ending is found anciently in the tablets from MURASU,  and in later Semitic languages, particularly in Arabic where it means "Lord."  (Coogan p. 77)  The prefix core of the name, CORI, CORIAN, has been discussed above.  One meaning of the name could be "our Lord is our priest" or, "the Lord is the Priest" or "The Priest is our Lord" each with a subtle difference.

CORIHOR: KORI, HORUS,  HOR

There are three CORIHORS in the Book of Ether.  Third CORIHOR is a place name and will be discussed separately.  These three names are a fine example of papponymy. The first  CORHIOR was the grandson of JARED, and the son of KIB. CORHIOR overthrew his father KIB and reigned as king until his brother SHULE deposed him and re-enthroned KIB.  CORIHOR repented and was granted power when he  became KIB'S successor . (Ether 7:3-5, 8-9, 13-14; Largey p. 430)  CORIHOR was an early Jaredite rebel. (Ether 7:3)  The name has two elements, CORI and HOR.  CORI, has been discussed above. The Akkadian form, since there is no C in Akkadian would be KOR, also found in Alma 46:6, 12.   KORI will be discussed when we reach the K in the Alphabet.  The meaning of CORI-  most used,  is ''priest."  -HOR,  is an abbreviation for the early  Egyptian god HORUS,  discussed in PART 13 of this series.  So the name CORIHOR could mean "the priest of Horus."  This name takes us back to Egyptian influence.  This will be pursued in PART 15.

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