Dr. Einar C. Erickson
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Even more striking if possible is the fact that the term for overseer, inspector or superintendent is literally translated in the New Testament as Bishop and they were the sons of Aaron who the overseers, inspectors and superintendents

ANGOLA   To   ANTIPARAH

INTRODUCTION

It is interesting to note that the books of Alma and Heleman comprise nearly 200 pages of the entire book of Mormon, nearly 38 %, but representing less than 10 % of the total time period of the Nephites which began nearly 600 BC and extended until after 425 AD.  Many of the most important doctrinal teachings are contained in those 200 pages.  Third Nephi has about 10 % of the pages of the Book of Mormon, and of course it embodies the main thrust of the Book of Mormon as the Second Witness of Jesus Christ by his singular appearance and ministry in the Western Hemisphere.  Many essential doctrines are also contained in l and 2 Nephi and Mosiah, not the least of which is the knowledge that the Holy Ghost is a spirit Man who talked with Nephi face to face. (1 Nephi 11:11; Roberts p. 60) The nearly 57 pages of Ether are barely 10 % of the entire Book of Mormon, yet,  so far, more than 50 names of the nearly 337 that will be studied, have been discussed,  but only names beginning with A have been researched. There will be a great deal more names that will be found to have great antiquity as the study continues.  So, a great many of the names in the Book of Mormon are traceable back to Jaradite  genealogies, especially the line of Jared, (Largey p. 431),  and a few from his brother. All of the Jaredite names are of great antiquity as evidenced by the search of the Akkadian Dictionary and related sources, some older than the Akkadian, which reflects names in existence at about the  same time as the Jaredite departure from the old world. It has been an unexpected great spiritual journey with deeply rewarding experiences that have provided deep understanding that comes from becoming familiar with the actual persons and time and places the names depict.  As I look over other dictionaries and resources in my library I anticipate with a growing wonder and expectation the revealing encounters that will be mine to experience as they are researched.

THE GARSANA ARCHIVES

The GARSANA ARCHIVES, in five volumes, by the CORNELL UNIVERSITY STUDIES IN ASSYRIOLOGY AND SUMEROLOGY were published by 2009. The massive archives accumulated with the discovery and recovery of data from the extinct city of GARSANA dating before DYNASTY 111 OF UR,  (2370 -2000 BC) are of extraordinary importance for the study and analysis of the early culture of Mesopotamia and names that were in circulation then and during Dynasty 1 and 11, particularly in the southern Euphrates River region and the northern Persian Gulf, principally in the area of the ancient city of UR; home of Abraham near the end of Dynasty111.   The five volumes include: l. GARSANA ARCHIVE CONCORDANCES.  2.  GARSANA ARCHIVE --INDXES.  3. SUMERIAN LANGUAGE-TEXTS-CONCORDANCES.  4. SUMERIAN LANGUAGES-GLOSSARIES, VOCABULARIES.  5.  GARSANA  (EXTINCT CITY) -CONCORDANCES.  The ARCHIVE was first discussed in PART 10, and continued in this study, PART 11. Most of the GARSANA ARCHIVES of some 1500 texts were included in VOL. 3.  At first,  it was intended that Vol. 4 data would have been included within Vol. 3, but there was just too much data, so Vol. 4 was published separately, which alone is a massive volume of nearly 800 pages.  In the past, the publications of texts from the THIRD DYNASTY of UR has often been characterized by an absence of transliteration and translations, but also of comprehensive indexes to the tablets, often published only in hand copies.  The lack of up-to-date  Sumerian dictionaries as well as adequate studies of the difficult and complex terminology of the economic texts recovered, were often the reasons of a reluctance to provide indexes and even when provided, to accompany them with adequate translations,. without which trying to find parallels to early Jaredite names would have been most difficult. When translations were offered they were often vague or general and tended to repeat themselves form volume to volume without any critical updating. In addition, context was rarely, if ever, included in the indexing of the volumes.

Over the more than twenty five years that I have been collecting dictionaries and archaeological sources to start studying Book of Mormon names seriously, there has been the increasing application of computer technology to Mestopotamian discoveries, mainly of Assyriology which has made the study of the vast UR 111 archives easier and more efficient. The creation of both the CDLI and BDTNS  projects, respectively in Berlin/Las Angles and Madrid, now allows for comprehensive searching of data that previously was impossible or too time-consuming. The beginning of the PENNSYLVANIA SUMERIAN DICTIONARY (PSD) and its continuation on the INTERNET (ePS), coupled with the CHICAGO ASSYRIAN DICTIONARY (CAD), along with the earlier COMPUTER AIDED ANALYSIS OF AMORITE  (Gelb p. vii) which had really started in 1960, and numerous lexical studies have greatly facilitated the study of the SUMERIAN terminology and names found in these texts.  The Monumental work now nearly completed, of the PROSOPOGRAPHY OF THE NEO-ASSYRIAN EMPIRE under Simo Parola, was started in1980, is of immense importance as these studies testify.  A COMMENTARY on the GARSANA ARCHIVES (CUSAS 5) followed, prepared by Wolfgang Heimpel, which provides extensive additions and clarifications to previous understanding of the terminology of the texts.  The discovery, recovery, and publication of the GARSANA ARCHIVES is a great catalyst to warrant giving attention to the extensive work.  (Kleinerman pl. v)  The ARCHIVE is there on the table and is being used. It will be of great value in the study of the world of the Jaredites and the world of Abraham.

NAMES     

 Again, the Book  of Mormon names are on the left, the names, words, and name elements found in the ancient sources are on the right.  The main ancient source being used is the AKKADIAN DICTIONARY, and  other sources, including EGYPTIAN, of about that same  time period (JAREDITE TIMES) or earlier, especially NEO-ASSYRIAN and SUMERIAN and OLD IRANIAN  and PERSIAN.

NAMES

 ANGOLA:  AN, ANA, GULA,  GULU, ANG,  L, LA    

ANGOLA is a place name for a Nephite City in which Mormon's troops retreated before the powerful Lamanite army about 327-328 AD. Despite Mormon's efforts to fortify ANGOLA, the .Lamanites drove the Nephites from the City. (Morm. 2:24)

The name ANGOLA has the prefix AN- and ANG, and a suffix -GOLA and an ending of L or LA.  The consonantal elements N,  NG and NGL are not in available sources as names or words, if they even exist. But the prefix AN- does appear in the Neo-Assyrian Dictionary, meaning "Look upon, or  in," most often in the form of ANA-, with more than 39 names with the prefix,  (Radner p. 109-112),  where it is identified as Akkadian. It is in the Akkadian Dictionary in the same form, ANA, meaning "to, for."  (Black p. 17)  In the Akkadian Dictionary  there are more than 125 words and names with the prefix AN, sometimes with more than four variations and modified by the suffix. (Black  pp. 16-19)  However,  in the Egyptian Dictionary there are more than 310 words and names with the AN prefix. (Budge pp. 55-65)  In ancient Egyptian, the element AN is used in various ways, in the hieroglyphics there is a common symbol for AN, generally a left facing feather at the end of the hieroglyphic, then additions are made to convey some slight changes in meaning. AN can be used as a conditional particle, or a post negative particle, and have the meaning of "in, to, for, because, by", some additional carvings change the meaning to "repel, turn back, drive away". (Budge pp. 56-57) But, as used in early Mesopotamia,  AN is the name of a Goddess.  (Budge p. 57) It is this last use that is more prevalent elsewhere than in Egypt.  In Phoenician, AN is the male version of the Goddess ANAT. (Benz 382)  There is also the elements N,  AN, N(T),  all from ANAT.  The meaning of the name of the Goddess ANAT is "to answer." She was a violent Goddess. (Benz p. 382)  In Egyptian, AN has many other meanings as well depending on what the carver or writer had in mind.  (Budge pp. 58)  The Book of Mormon takes us back into ancient times, therefore it necessary that each name or word,  be examined for all the elements that we can find any information about , but especially from ancient sources.  Often the context will demand which meaning to incorporate in order to make sense of the statement being made.

 So the use of ANGOLA as a place name is of considerable antiquity,  it enters the Book of Mormon long after the Book of Ether has been brought into the inventory of plates and records. While it may have also been in the Brass Plates, there is in the core and ending of the rest of the place name  (GOLA) other indications of connections to UGARIT, mentioned in PART 9 of this series, and to Akkadian.  Recall that much of the tablets recovered from UGARIT  were in Akkadian Cuniform writing.  Lehi, no doubt, had more than a causal relationship with UGARIT. Among the recovered documents was information on the extensive fleet of UGARIT, with many varieties of ships.  One such document was the CATALOGUES OF SHIPS (UT 319). This catalogue provides a list of sixteen different entries. In one text, fifteen ships are identified. In another, UT 2062  it mentions a fleet of 100 ships just to carry grain. Had Lehi employed such ships for his mercantile activity? A multi-purpose list of 150 ships that were  outfitted and ready for action, and there were distinctions between  LONGSHIPS and the ROUND SHIPS. All "represented only  a fraction of ships engaged in sea fare." (Young p. 40)  And to think, Lehi had been there, in that harbor with its hundreds of ships, trading and doing business. Were some of his sons with him at times? They no doubt obtained some of their gold and silver dore bullion and ingots from the cupel furnaces of UGARIT that would later all be lost and sacrificed to get the Brass Plates.  (l Nephi 3:22-25) For his greed and failure to give Nephi the Brass Plates,  Laban would be killed. (1 Nephi 3:25-26; 4:7-18)

As noted before in the ancient AKKADIAN language where there is no O, the dictionary goes from N directrly to P So, when we look for the suffix GOLA, in the place name ANGOLA, we would be looking for a suffix that would be in a form using another vowel as a substitute for the O, such as "a, u, e, or i."  Of these, in Akkadian, U would most likely  be used to replace  the O's. But one or the other of the other vowels could be used. So, in Akkadian we find GULU, GULA, GULI or GULE,  rather than GOLA, referenced in the Neo-Assyrian sources. (Radner pp.  428-431) where 26 names and additional variations has GULA as a prefix or standing alone.   Also in the Akkadian sources we find GULE NU, GULGUL, GULI BATU, GULI NNU (interestingly this last one means "man," (think- MAN OF HOLINESS). Note that several of names, such as  GULLU,  have double consonants, as does  GULLU(M),  having the double consonants LL. It also has the common mimation ending of (M). Both found so often in Akkadian words and names as well as in Jaredite words and names. (Black p. 96)  Again take note of the doublings of elements and letters in these names: the double prefix  GULGUL, (in Akkadian you also have GULGULU(M), meaning human skull, (Black p. 96), and note the double NN's in GULINNU. This is characteristic of Akkadian. Most of the time they will toss in a U ending to help in the vocalization.  It is characteristic of Jaredite. We will find other  peculiar names in the Book of Mormon with double letters and elements, (i.e. Gidgiddoni, with both the prefix element doubled, but also the core letters as well) This is being consistent with origin of many of the names Book of Mormon in Mesopotamia in Akkadian times. The meanings of the previous names include: "in, a kind  of, an," sometimes the suffix refers to an "in, or an, or kind of head, skull or part of a human." The nature of the suffix determines the meaning. There is nothing fictional about any of this. It is all consistent.

In the Akkadian dictionary there are more than 13 words or names having the suffix of GULU (GOLA). (Black p. 96)  The prefix AN and the core of GOL, GUL in Akkadian  has been discussed already. So, for our purposes this means the meaning of ANGOLA is going to be tied into the meaning of the final element or ending, which is L, or LA.  As the beginning of the meaning is limited to the other elements, we have the meaning of:  "in, or a kind of, man....something?"  So what does the ending L or LA contribute?  What is the "something?" The consonant ending L found in the Semitic languages,  particularly Phoenician, means "Mighty one." Generally referring to a deity.  In Hebrew it is abbreviated as  I'H,  and in UGARIT, as  L'Y. (Benz p. 336)  Now, the abbreviations   H,  A, or  Y, however used, are commonly those for Jehovah, the  real "MIGHTY ONE."  So ANGOLA seems to mean, "A KIND OF, or  LOOK UPON, THE MIGHTY ONE," with clear reference to a GOD. Recall, that L is also the hypocoristicon or abbreviation for ELOHIM. The name applied to MAN; recall MAN OF HOLINESS.  Sometime the final A of the ending of a name  is often added for vocalization or sound. The name sounds a little harsh without the A ending. ANGOLA is therefore another genuine name having very interesting implications, historically and in meaning. But, wherever or whenever, the name originated, whether in the Book of Ether or Brass Plates, it would have been a real honor to have it given.  Only the one who gave the name, some father or mother, would have had in mind which god they wanted to memorialize in the name. In this name it could be either JEHOVAH or  ELOHIM, or even both. 

ANGOLA is also a New World Indian name which can be found in the LENAPE ANNALS on creation. (Reynolds p. 320) The, LENAPE better known as DELAWARES, met the Dutch settlers at New Amsterdam (later New York) and participated with the Dutch and the Mohawk, Iroquois and other Indians in the COVENANT CHAIN alliances of 1626-1636.  Some of these were the first Lamanites to hear the gospel more than 210 years later. (Thomas p. 192) There language was essentially Algonquian. (Thomas p. 161) so one might research Algonquian for more parallels. (see series: FIRST MISSION OF THE CHURCH 25 April 2007-27June 2007)  on this web site. 

ANGOLA, is also the name of an African nation, does its language have a connection with ancient Aramaic and Semitic languages? In Angola there has been  splendid progress in translation work getting the Bible into Kikongo,  Umbundu,  Luchazi,  Songo,  Umbangala,  Nkumbi and a new translation project of the American Bible Society is to get the Bible into Nyaneka, the chief dialects of the region, beginning this year. None of these names sound like a Book of Mormon name. But look at the fifth name, UMBANGALA.  The ANGALA in that name is the same as ANGOLA.  Perhaps they will publish a dictionary in English of Angolanese.  How can that nation, or any other nation, understand the SECOND WITNESS OF CHRIST if they don't know anything about the FIRST WITNESS?  In November 2012 the ISINDEBELE bible was launched, which means there is now a complete Bible in all of the official languages of South Africa.  Bible literacy throughout the world is on the increase, with a huge global initiative. Mostly from the efforts of Bible Societies, and not organized churches. With the new missionary thrust of the LDS Church it seems that other nations are being prepared for missionaries by making available the Bible in all languages of the world without knowing the service they are rendering the LDS Church.  (Stevens p.  13)  God does work in a mysterious (interesting) way!

ANI-ANTI

ANI-ANTI is the place name for a Lamanite Village in the Land of Nephi, it could have been named such after the Nephites were driven out, unless that was the name originally. (Alma 21:11)  Aaron, Muloki, Amnah, and other missionaries preached and contended there but the inhabitants were not receptive. (Alma 21:11-12; Largey p. 61) 

The prefix, AN is found in Akkadian as AN or ANA, meaning "to or for", and was discussed in PART 9 of this series on pages 3 and 5 and the above in the discussion on ANGOLA.  Among the many gods available at the time the Jaredites lived in Mesopotamian, the God AN, and the Goddess ANAT were well known. But for our purpose there is the exact name, ANI, found in ancient  Egyptian, with the meaning of the "Moon God." (Budge p. 59) It is in reference to the Moon God SIN (SYN) that it is found so often in Mesopotamian names and words, as noted in previous PARTS of this series especially under the name of AMARON. In that connection, knowledge and use of the GOD SIN, is very ancient and goes back to the Sumerian times, and from the most well known of Sumerian cities, UR, where Abraham resided comes the name AMAR-SIN.  (Di Vito p. 47) Also in Egyptian, it is a form of  "the God OSIRIS," and "of the STARS," following the implications of the name in harmony with Gods and the heavens. (Budge p. 59) In general, AN refers to a GOD.  Whoever would be doing the carving or writing would select the deity to be identified and indicate it by some additional mark.  In Egyptian,  ANI is not often used as a prefix, most of the time it is the abbreviation   that is used. And when AN is used as a prefix in a name it is hard to tell from the more than 160 words and names with many variations listed in the Akkadian Dictionary what the intention of the original scribe was, due to subtle differences in suffixes and the use of vowels. But they knew and it is interesting to try to make sense of their intent.  The main thing ANI is real! This is further confirmed by ANI as a reference in ancient Egyptian to "MAN OF ON (Heliopolis)."  (Budge p. 60) This is a use that would be preferred because of the previous names related to the locality where the Father in Law of Joseph, sold into Egypt, fulfilled his High Priestly duties in ON.  As noted below, ANTI may have the meaning of "imitate" or "be like." One meaning for ANI ANTI could then be "IMATATE or BE LIKE THE MAN or  PRIEST OF ON."

In Egyptian there is also the expected meaning of ANTI as opposition, it is found with some hieroglyphic changes to the carving of ANTI, to mean "repeller."  While not  strong parallels,  the Egyptian does account for the two meanings  that of  "imitation" and that of "opposition."  In Egyptian there are other forms of the name one must avoid or get confused. There is for example the element or form,  AN-TI, (Budge p. 49), ­ this hyphenated  word has no similarity to the formal ANTI which has no hyphen. With the hyphen the meaning changes drastically.  AN-TI means, "man of Nubia,"  or "Nubian Bow."  (Budge p. 49) The ancient word, AN-TI,  does not have a  left facing feather at the end of the hieroglyphic form that defines the prefix  ANTI described above.   

In Egyptian, there is also another element to consider, AN-T, a prefix portion of ANTI, but not to be confused with the GODDESS ANAT.  It is of interest because of the underlying implications for a deeper, meaning of ANTI. The meaning of  AN-T "is one third of a second." Extremely unusual.  The translator of the ancient hieroglyphic interprets this to mean in "the twinkling of an eye." (Budge p. 58)  This is an expression difficult to find elsewhere but it appears in Mormon Doctrine, and especially in the Book of Mormon, where speaking of the Three Nephites it states that "they shall be changed in THE TWINKLING OF AN EYE, (3 Nephi 28) from mortality to immortality," at the second coming. (McConkie p. 729)  In the original text Joseph was translating, because it was written in reformed Egyptian,  was there in  hieroglyphic, or its equivalent, on the Gold Plates, an expression for which Joseph dictated for Oliver to write down  for "THE TWINKLING OF AN EYE?" If not, it would be hard to explain where Joseph got the expression. Also one finds a great deal of satisfaction in studying the other Egyptian elements and forms found in ANTI:  A, AN, ANI, AN-TI, ANT, AN-T, AN-TT,  the latter of these, in translation refers to "valley of the Shadow" or "Dark Valley" [spirit world?] through which souls must pass in order to enter the Kingdom of Osiris [the Heavenly Governor, the Sun God, or AMON].  All of the elements that make up the name  have implications and similarities to unique aspects of Mormon doctrine.  Mormons might get more out of these variations and their meanings than the law allows, but the familiarity or similarity with Mormon Doctrine is not casual, the connection is there as Nibley points out in his works. (Nibley pp. 369; 467)  Is there still  much more in Egyptian? Yes!  Future PARTS will cover additional themes as we find Akkadian parallels to Book of Mormon names..

Some variations and uses of the element ANI look interesting because in Akkadian it is listed as Anu(m), substituting a U for an I and adding a mimation (m) to the ending of the prefix ANI-, and meaning,  in old Akkadian,  "the god of heaven." In early Egyptian that would be ANUBIS,  or his successor Osiris, or AMON.  In ancient Egyptian ANUBIS was the governor [God] of heaven, earth and the underworld. So the Akkadian harmonizes close to the Egyptian meaning. (Budge p. 61)  Mimation was common in Jaredite times, so Akkadian and the Jaredites had their own peculiarities with unique similarities which further verifies the names utilized in the Book of Mormon are real, and correctly reflect historical times, ancient practices and settings.  Joseph Smith continues to get it right all of the time. The underlying details and complexity of the names are a wonder. It is a severe blow to a non-believer, dissenter or insensitive soul. The clay tablets and the names they contain are real and cannot be faked. And they are all non-Mormon translations!  

Now, we still need to make more sense out of the suffix: -ANTI.  The Egyptians used -ANTI as a suffix in the name ANT ANTI  where ANT means valley and ANTI  means myrrh. (Budge p. 58)  ANT alone means "valley of the tombs."  (Budge p. 58) When the Lamanites were  converted by the four sons of Mosiah, particularly Ammon, they took upon themselves the name of ANTI NEPHI-LEHIES, the reference may have been a form of declaration that they were 'not of the land of Nephi and Lehi,' but were converts.  However, long ago at BYU,  when Eldon Ricks and Hugh Nibley were working on details of this sort in the scriptures, Nibley found that there was a Semitic and Common Indo-European root corresponding to ANTI that means 'in face of or facing' as one does when facing a mirror, one who looks like, or "ONE WHO IMITATES."  (Eldin Ricks, Book of Mormon Study Guide, p. 63)  The implication being, it is not one who 'opposes,  nor one who is in opposition,'  but one who wants to be a 'mirror image' of, or 'BE LIKE.'  "Thus the term ANTI-NEPHI-LEHIES, might refer to those who imitate [and want] the teachings [and life style]  of the descendants of Nephi and Lehi." (Ludlow p. 210)  But when all the meanings are considered in depth the meaning touches a delicate deeper meaning that is significant: ANI-ANTI would mean "One who wants to be like God-to be exalted as he is and have eternal life in the heavens!" (3 Nephi 18:16) That says it all, but there will be some more on this subject. So, what became of those deeply faithful and believing people? They eventually were called the People of Ammon. And most of them joined the 5400 along with their women and children as described in Alma 63:4, and went to the land northward.  (see the series on this Web Site: THEY DID BURY THEIR WEAPONS, 18 May 2009-7 Jan 2010)  The present day HOPI NATIVE AMERICANS are considered to be from those ancient believers as attested by traditions that their ancestors came from the south on a long journey and  buried their weapons deep in the ground and would not fight again. The HOPI still retain this tradition and other important ones. (Alma 24:17) . I know, because I have spent some time with them. 

ANTI-NEPHI-LEHI:  AN, ANT, ANTI

ANTI-NEPHI-LEHI  is the name given to the brother of king Lamoni.  (Alma 24:3)  This seems to be a throne  name taken by Lamoni's brother when he became leader of the ANTI-NEPHI-LEHIES. (Jacob 1:11)  The prefix ANTI has been discussed above, and most of that discussion applies to its use here.  While identified certainly as a bona fide Egyptian word or name,  it may also reflect the Egyptian, meaning  to "be of, the one of" more or less the same as becoming "one with" or wanting to become "one with Nephi and Lehi."  (Largey p. 67)  The way ANTI is used in the various names as a prefix, in the Book of Mormon it does not seem to mean "to oppose " or be "against." (Largey p. 67) Rather, the Egyptian and Akkadian and ancient sources, give it the meaning to become "with and like"  their ancestral leaders with ALL that implies. 

ANTI-NEPHI LEHIES: AN, ANT, ANTI, NEHI

ANTI-NEPHI-LEHIES, is the name given to the people of Ammon, Ammonites, and given to thousands of  Lamanites from seven Lamanite lands and cities, (Alma 23:8-13) and has essentially been discussed above. Clearly, the prefix is of great antiquity, the names of Nephi and Lehi while old are not as yet found in documents before 2000 BC. It is the prefix ANTI, that has the antiquity and ancient connection to Akkadian and Egyptian. Both of the names Nephi and Lehi are old in origin, though not reaching Jaredite times. A commander, by the name of NEHI (NEPHI), served under the great warrior king Thutmose III, in seventeen campaigns abroad, and helped bring most of the known world under Egyptian control. Thutmose was the Eighteenth Dynasty Pharaoh (17th Century BC) who consolidated the Egyptian Empire. NEHI was also a builder, having built two stone temples at Semna for Thutmose III. (Keating p.  50, 48)  This suggests the name may have greater antiquity and so we keep on digging. The above  combination of names, the old with younger names  appear in the Book of Mormon around 74 BC and clearly were generated by the circumstances of the times. The names reflect ancestral family names of the Nephites, that were combined in names that reflected a unique relationship but  does not mean "against" suggested by the first glance at the name. However, in Egyptian as noted above, there is another variation to the ANTI element which means "repeller," (Budge p. 57) but it is not applicable here. What is preferred has been detailed above.

Both the names Nephi and Lehi will be discussed in future studies of Book of Mormon names from other sources.

The ANTI-NEPHI-LEHIES, or people of AMMON,  were utterly firm in their testimony and "never did fall away" from the truth. Once they were about to break their vow in order to help the Nephites had Helaman dissuaded them not to, (Alma 56:6-9) and instead, accepted the service of their sons who had not entered into the oath. They became the "sons of Helaman."  And though many were wounded, none of them died in the battles they engaged in. Those converts from the Lamanites had taken upon themselves the strange name of ANTI NEPHI LEHIES after their conversion. To them the name meant:  "Those of Nephi and Lehi we want to be like." (Largey pp. 67-68)     

ANTIOMNO: ANTI, ANT, AN, MN

ANTIOMNO was the name of a Lamanite king in the land of Middoni and a friend of king Lamoni  (Alma 20:4),  about 90 BC.  After Ammon was instructed by the Lord that his brethren were imprisoned in Middoni both Ammon and Lamoni journeyed to Middoni to deliver them. King Lamoni proposed to use his friendship with king Antiomno as means to persuade him to release the prisoners. (Alma 20:2-7, 28-30) . (Largey p. 58)

The name ANTI-OMNO has two main elements, the prefix ANTI, discussed in this PART  as well as in PART 9, and the suffix, -OMNO. Lets examine both elements. The prefix ANTI- establishes the name as being of great antiquity and related to Akkadian and Egyptian about the time the Jaredites were leaving Kish, a city less than 50 miles southwest of Babylon and the Tower of Babel. (See the MAPS  of the Cities and region of MESOPOTAMIA).  From what has been discussed before, ANTI would be considered to mean, in this name, "to be like."  There is no "o" in Akkadian, but there is in Jaredite, but the O's seem to be for vocalization. In OMNO there is the element MN, this has also has been discussed in PART 8, in the name AMNIGADDAH and in PART 9, in the name AMNOR, and elsewhere in these studies. Here, in the name ANTIOMNO, it would mean "deity."  (Benz p. 349)  So, according to the Law of Parsimony, that the simplest answer is the best, the name would mean  "be, or become like God." That is the true substance, indeed, the underlying assertion in the Restored Gospel!  Evidence of such an expectation is found in ancient records: "This is the good end of those who have obtained  knowledge, to become God. What then are you waiting for? Will you not , as one who has received everything, become a guide to the worthy so that the human race may be means of you be saved by God?" (Foerster pp. 333-334: Smith pp. 825-827)  That is one of the most profound restored doctrines of the restoration .  Most Certainly the Book of Ether contained things so sacred that they were not permitted to be put into translation, and from the experiences of the Brother of Jared, we glean that a lot of what was held back were the ordinances of the Temple, and the understanding of mans eternal destiny, to become like God! (D&C 84:33-44; Teachings of Joseph Smith p. 308, 248; D&C 19:20)

Internally, there is much more, the element MN,  in ANTIOMNO,  is the abbreviation for the God MIN in ancent  Egyptan. So the name really means "TO BE LIKE or IMITATE" the god "MIN." Of all the Gods whey "MIN?"  "...Hail, Thou Whose Eye Is as Fire, coming ....from Letopolis...[MIN]  is "Osiris, God's Father...Letopolis was the most frightening place in Egypt, the place of awesome nocturnal rites of fire walking and fire sacrifices...The city's Egyptian name ...Sekhmet , the fire-breathing lioness...Its Greek name...Letopolis...it was the thunderbolt city of...MIN...Sekhmet of the fiery eye that consumes all before it...all strike dread into the hearts of the morally corrupt...moral weakness in general." (Nibley p. 305)  So, ANTIOMNO most likely would mean: BE LIKE, or IMMATE MIN, THE FATHER OF GOD, THE MOST MORAL OF ALL BEINGS.  ANTIOMNO  would be a name that would motivate one to be as moral and pure as the Father In Heaven.  Looking more into Egyptian sources we find the "first parents [are] Isis and MIN" (Nibley p. 286, 289)  MIN is the First Parent as far back as one wants to read into the hieroglyphics.  "In the midst of Heliopolis...in the temple garden...MIN and ISIS...FIRST PARENTS...time  of creation." (Nibley p. 304)  "Lift up your faces, inhabitants...Osiris Nes-MIN...has come to you. You can see him...You recognize Osiris Nes-MIN...as the lord of all of you." (Nibley p. 417)  The expression FATHER OF GOD, could refer to ELOHIM, FATHER OF JEHOVAH.  The ancients knew more about the FATHER  IN HEAVEN than they normally get credit for. They knew about the two main gods, a Father and a Son, and they knew about mother.  How did all get distorted and lost?  

ANTION: AN, ANT, ANTI, NTN, -ON

ANTION was a measure of Gold in the exchange system of the Nephites.  ANTION is found  in Alma  11:19, "Now an ANTION of gold is equal to three shiblons." (See CHART )

Nephite weights and measures was a system of exchange for goods and services, it has been called King Mosiah's Monetary System. (Welch p. 109)  It may have served as such.  It was outlined in Alma 11:5-19, see the summary chart included herewith, prepared by FARMS, at BYU, and included by Welch in his book as Charts, pages 110 to 113, with explanations. (Welch pp. 109-113) and compiled by Largey. The Nephite system seems to have an old world Egyptian connection. The  measurements for the most part increase exponentially, much like the ancient Egyptian system, (see Chart  NEPHITE MONETARY SYSTEM   EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS CHART). (Welch p. 113-114)  "Although the Nephite system is not exactly the same as the Egyptian, the similarities corroborate the report that the Nephite Kings studied 'the language of the Egyptians' (Mosiah 1:4) (Welch p. 114)  also  (see WEIGHTS & MEASURES GOLD, SILVER AND BARLEY, 9 March 2005)  The episode involving ANTIONS seemed to underscore the high value of a bribe that  Zeezrom offered Amulek while Amulek was preaching in Ammonihah.  Zeezrom offered six onties of silver, or the equivalent of 42 measures of grain, equal to 28 ANTIONS OF GOLD, if he would deny the existence of a Supreme Being. (Alma 11:22)   That really does seem to be much of a bribe.  The system seemed to have been, with only a little change, from the time it was originated soon after Lehi left Jerusalem, and used for nearly 500 years down until the reign of the judges. (Alma 11:4) At any rate, an ANTION was a measure of gold, equal to three shiblons of silver. A measure of grain was worth 84 shiblons.  See the Chart for one proposed outline of the system.  See, also, the summary by Largey. (Largey p. 609)  The Book of Mormon names, ANTION and AMNOR so far discussed in these studies, are only a few of the names in the Monetary systems that seem to have considerable antiquity, confirmed by their presence, or the presence of their prefix and suffix , or both,  in ancient Akkadian and  contemporary or earlier languages. The other names will be discussed in the future. While many are of Jaredite times and attested to in the Book of Ether, they could have also been included in the Brass Plates and early records available to the Nephites and, at times, the Lamanites, for inclusion in the personal and place names they could draw from. Or in the instance of ANTON, used as a name for  specific pieces of precious metals for exchanging goods in the Book of Mormon.

A knowledge of Personal Names and other words and names, outside their Hebrew upbringing, could have been collected by some of the Ten Tribes from the Amorites and Phoenicians and Canaanites they were in touch with on all borders of their lands and history while in Palestine. No doubt when we get to names such as Shiblon and Shiblom listed in the Jaredite posterity but also in the monetary system we will be making similar comments. It also means we need to revisit the monetary system and all the names included for the gold and silver and grain exchange system.  Something very interesting is involved, some of it I discovered when I dealt with the system  the  9th  of March 2005.  It keeps my interest perked up quite a bit.  The system seems to have appeared during the time of Mosiah.  It was he who translated the gold plates and inscribed stone.  Did he get the system from the Jaredite records, or did he modify the Nephite system with the information from the Jaredites?  Mysteries? I love 'um!  A great deal of insight into monetary systems and bartering comes from ancient EBLA.  Gold and silver were paid as tribute toEbla by a vast array of  subjected cities and regions, until it was destroyed by Naram-Sin of Akkad,  the grandson of Sargon, Emperor of Akkad around 2250 BC.  (Weiss p. 137) There was an enormous library of tablets found there after 1976, after ten years of digging,  so data from those tablets go back before that date.  All through these entries in this Web Site, EBLA has been referred to.  The data suggests the Jaredites had passed through that region before  its destruction.  Probably fifty to one hundred years before.    

In the name ANTION there are the two main elements, the prefix ANTI-, and the suffix, -ON.  The prefix has been discussed in the above, and in PARTS 8 and 9. The prefix ANTI, in the name  ANTION,  would seem to mean, "to be like". The suffix, ON, has also been discussed previously and is related to deity and the priestly place of ON, or Heliopolis, in Egypt.  ANTION could then likely mean: "To be priestly, or like the god of ON." Why someone a long time ago chose a perfectly good name to be used as  a measure of gold for exchange purposes is hard to imagine.  The whole system is so mathematically elegant that to imagine Joseph and Oliver shifting gears during the translation to work out this system and make it internally consistent, is difficult to comprehend.  If they had conjured up this system, wouldn't Oliver have made some comment about it?  Why complicate the text by introducing it at all, unless it was real and Mormon in his abridgement tucked it in. Sometimes I wonder about Mormon, I think he wanted us to appreciate what he was doing and maybe he had insight into what his son, Moroni, would do.  Or else he had a peculiar sense of humor and was a big tease.                                                                 

It should be noted that the consonant construct NTN in  Hebrew means "to give," but this would have come into Hebrew from ancient Semitic sources up to more than a 1000 years before  Hebrew.  Hebrew is generally considered to have developed about 1200 BC.  The element NTN goes back much earlier in other Semitic languages..  

In the new World, the Indian word Quichua corresponding to ANTI is, we are assured, ANTA, which Garcilasso de La Vega tells us means "Copper".  (Reynolds p. 320)

ANTIONAH:  AN,  ANTI,  ON,  AH

While we have also discussed the ON endings in several areas of the previous PARTS, the -ON ending is an authentic Hebrew suffix characteristic of a Hebrew hypocoristicon (abbreviation, nick name), usually dropping a theophoric name component, and is found frequently in the Old World.  (Coogan p. 112) The longer form of the name is ANTIONAH discussed below incorporates the element ON. In the Phoenician inscriptions that are available there is a paucity of examples of the root NTN,  but a considerable frequency of MTN, both having the same meaning,  "gift".  The NTN may have the nuance  "to give" while the MTN element is simply "gift". (Benz p. 364)  In the transmission down through  sources listed above for the name ANTIONAH,  are available for review in PART 4 through to this present one.  So they won't be repeated here. Attention will be drawn to the meaning of the name, however, which is modified by the final suffix  -AH. This is a theophoric  name containing the -AH, Jehovah, element. The abbreviation for JEHOVAH would suggest the meaning of ANTIONAH would be: "to be like, or imitate, JEHOVAH, the god of ON", or simply  'to be like and imitate Jehovah."  ANTIONAH, because of the ending,  is the long theophoric form of the name ANTION with the NTN, element, "gives or gift' also noted above,  so the name could mean: "Jehovah gives."  The Book of Mormon puts a great deal of emphasis on "being like or imitating, Christ".  I think a meaning something like that would be acceptable.                                                       

ANTIONUM:  AN, ANT, ANTI, ON, NUM. N, UM

ANTIONUM is both the name of a prominent Nephite commander as well as a place name. ANTIONUM  was a Nephite military leader who was killed with his ten thousand troops in the last battle between the Nephites and Lamanites. (Mormon 6:14,  about 385 AD; Largey p. 68) 

There were at least 23 commanders each with 10,000 troops. They were all killed at Cumorah, along with their wives and children, few survived.  How many Nephites were scattered in the distant parts of the land and did not show up at Cumorah to fight no one has attempted a guess, perhaps as many as one million were killed at Cumorah.  Alma had said they would be wiped out 500 years before. The total population of Nephites may not have reached a large number.

ANTIONUM, is essentially the same as ANTION discussed above, but with mimation, or ending in M or UM.   All of the above applies to this name. The difference is in the ending, the UM ending, mimation was still current in the Semitic dialects of Palestine and Syria between 2100  and 1800 BC, when the nominative case still ended in -m.  "This is significant, since the Book of Mormon favors  -m endings for Jaredite names. The Jaredites must have taken mimation with them some time before 2000 BC." (Nibley 2. p. 288)  The Jaredites probably came over before 2250 BC, there is still some discussion on this, but it is clear from the names that the earlier date is preferred.  Mimation, however, also was gender oriented.  If the ending of the name was TUM, it was female, so the UM ending by implication is male. One could tell if the deity mentioned was a God or Goddess by the use of the TUM ending.

The "Lord of the Earth" in Sumerian is EN-KI, the Akkadians called him E-A, the E standing for Elohim, in Eblaite, contemporary with the Jaredites, it was E-UM.  "The -UM is the Semitic nominatiave ending with mimation, so that E stands for the divine name stripped of the case ending" and abbreviated. (Gordon p. 19)  And as noted elsewhere, mimation was extremely common in Akkadian.  In the case of ANTIONUM, the ending was more a cultural thing than any change to the meaning of the name.  But it also gives the name considerable antiquity.

ANTIPARAH

ANTIPARAH was a Nephite city taken by Lamanites and garrisoned with their strongest army. (Alma 56:13-14, 34)  about 64 BC. Helaman and his 2000 stripling Amonite youthful warriors  decoyed the Lamanite troops from the city and, together with the forces of Antipas, defeated them. (Alma 56: 31-54)  When the Nephites  prepared to go against Antiparah itself, the remaining Lamanites fled. (Alma 57:3-4)  Presumably they occupied the city and the young warriors went on from there to glorify themselves in battle and success. 

The name ANTIPARAH has three elements, ANTI,  PAR, and AH.  A great deal has been discussed about ANTI, and its use in a number of names in this PART of the series on names and its general meaning of  "to be like, or to imitate, " would apply here.  All of what has been written so far would apply to the name now under consideration.  The element PAR, seems to be an abbreviation for "to be, a, or of"  in Akkadian (Black p. 264)  and in Neo-Assyrian the meaning, in more than seventeen names (Baker pp. 988-991)  with that prefix, is unknown meanings, but one name has the meaning "remembering." (Baker p. 988)  The final ending element is AH, the often mentioned abbreviation or theophoric  name element for Jehovah. The suggestion then is that the name would mean "remember,  to be like or imitate, Jehovah."  A search through Sumerian and Akkadian and other ancient sources did not find any additional information to explain PAR. The use of PAR in names that might be found in the Bible discloses the prefix seems to be part of Persian Names, again with uncertain meaning.  (Mandel p. 421) So we looked into the dictionary for that region.  In the lists of Persian Personal Names there are over 50 names that have PAR as a prefix, often the meaning being "having or being" , "around" as in being near. (Tavernier pp. 264-267)  So the meaning of ANTIPARAH could also mean: "to be like or imitate and have or be near,  Jehovah."   It is one of the rare instances that the available sources do not completely satisfy an understanding of a name, but the fact that there are parallels and similarities in Akkadian, Neo-Assyrian and ancient Persian, where the meaning still imparts a similar message, puts the Book of Mormon on a definitive basis because a work of fiction should have no such parallels and similarities, especially consistent with all the other names and historical information in the same geographical locations, Mesopotamia, the Levant and Egypt.

The study of Book of Mormon names and the Akkadian Dictionary and related sources will continue in PART 11.         

                                                            BIBLIOGRAPHY

BLACK, Jeremy & Andrew George & Nicholas Postgate, A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, Harrassiwutz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2000

BUDGE, E.A. Wallis, Vol. l: A-KHA, An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York, 1921

COOGAN, Michael D., West Semitic Personal Names in Murasu Documents, Edwards Brothers, Inc.,  Ann Arbor, 1976

DI VITO  Robert A., Studies in Third Millennium Sumerian and Akkadian Personal Names, Editrice  Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Roma, 1993

FOERSTER, Werner, Gnosis, A Selection of Gnostic Texts, l. Patristic Evidence, Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, UK. 1972 

GORDON, Cyrus H., Gary A. Rendsburg & Nathan h., Winter, Eds. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language, Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Indiana,  1987

KEATING, Rex, Nubian Twilight, Harcourt, Brace & World Inc., New York, 1963

LUDLOW, Daniel H., A companion to your Study of the Book of  Mormon, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1976

McCONKIE, Bruce R., Mormon Doctrine, Bookcraft Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah 1958

NIBLEY, Hugh, The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, An Egyptian Endowment, 2nd Ed. FARMS, BYU, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah 2005

NIBLEY, Hugh, (2) , An Approach to the Book of Mormon, FARMS, Deseret Book Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1988

PRICE, Lynn F., Every Person in the Book of Mormon, Horizon, Bountiful,  Utah, 1995

ROBERTS, B.H., Divine Immanence and The Holy Ghost, The Seventy's Course in Theology, Fifth Year, Deseret News, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1912

RYNOLDS, George, & Sjodahl, Janne, Commentary on the Book of Mormon, Vol. 11, Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1956

SMITH, Hyrum M., & Janne M. Sjodahl, The Doctrine and covenants Commentary, Deseret Book    Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1978

STEVENS, Jennica, M., Pray Around the World, The Record., ABC, Washington, D.C., Summer 2013

THOMAS, Hurst, et al., The American Indians, An Illustrated HIstory, Turner Publishing Co, Atlanta, Smithsonian Washington DC 1993

WEISS, Harvey, Ed. Ebla to Damascus, Smithsonian, Washington DC. 1985

WELCH, John W., & Gregory Welch, Charting the Book of Mormon, FARMS, BYU, Provo, Utah,  1999

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